Rīgas Svētā Pētera baznīca

Sv. Pētera baznīca Rīgā
St. Peter's Church.JPG

Rīgas Svētā Pētera baznīca (Rīga)

Rīgas Svētā Pētera baznīca
Rīgas Svētā Pētera baznīca
Koordinātas: 56°56′51″N 24°06′31″EKoordinātas56°56′51″N 24°06′31″E (karte)
Pamatinformācija
Valsts Karogs: Latvija LatvijaRīga
Adrese Reformācijas laukums 1
Apkaime Vecrīga
Statuss Pabeigts
Pabeigts 1209. gadā
Ekspluatācijā no: 1974. gada
Pielietojums Baznīca
Tehniskais raksturojums
Antena, spice 123,25 m
Skatu laukums 72 m
Liftu skaits 1
Emporis Nr. 111001

Rīgas Svētā Pētera baznīca (vācuPetrikirche) ir augstākā Rīgas baznīca, kā arī ievērojams gotikas stila 13. gadsimta valsts nozīmes arhitektūras piemineklis. Svētā Pētera baznīca atrodas VecrīgāReformācijas laukumā 1. Pirmo reizi rakstos minēta 1209. gadā, bet no 13. gadsimta saglabājušās tagadējās ēkas sānu jomu ārsienas un daži pīlāri interjerā. Līdz 1524. gadam tas bija Romas Katoļu baznīcas dievnams, bet no 1526. līdz 1940. gadam bija Rīgas luterāņu Sv. Pētera vācu draudzes dievnams, kopš 1991. gada Pētera baznīca ir Latvijas Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīcas Rīgas Sv. Pētera draudzes luterāņu dievnams.

Reliģisko darbību Sv. Pētera baznīcā reglamentē Reliģisko organizāciju likums un citi normatīvie akti. Tā tiek izmantota kā kulta celtne, koncertu, tematisku izstāžu par pilsētas attīstību un arhitektūru, mākslas darbu izstāžu, kultūras pasākumu norises vieta, kā arī kā starptautiska kultūras tūrisma objekts, kas ikdienā ir pieejams apmeklētajiem. Ēka un zeme ap to ir Rīgas pilsētas īpašums. Patlaban Svētā Pētera evaņģēliski luteriskā draudze bez maksas izmanto vairākas baznīcas telpas, bet Latvijas valsts turpina finansēt baznīcas izpētes, konservācijas un restaurācijas darbus.

Sv. Pētera baznīcas vēsture

Pirmo reizi Sv. Pētera baznīca rakstos minēta 1209. gadā līgumā starp bīskapu Albertu un Jersikas ķēniņu Visvaldi – tā uzcelta kā tirgotāju dievnams un sanāksmju vieta. 15. gadsimtā baznīca tika būtiski papildināta (klāt piebūvēta altāru daļa, velves, 1491. gadā pabeigts 136 metrus augstais tornis). Pētera baznīcas tornī 1352. gadā tika uzstādīts pirmais publiskais pulkstenis Rīgā. Baznīcas tornī stāvēja sargs, kas brīdināja par draudošajām briesmām pilsētai vai ugunsgrēku.

1408.-1409. gados uzcēla jaunu altārdaļu ar pusloka apeju un piecām kapelām, izveidojot trīsjomu baziliku. Tās altāra daļu pēc Rostokas Sv. Marijas baznīcas parauga dižgotikas stilā uzcēla no turienes ataicinātā būvmeistara Johana Rumešotela vadībā. Baznīcas pārbūves un paplašināšanās darbi turpinājās visu 15. gadsimtu, sevišķi gadsimta otrajā pusē (1456.-1491. gados izbūvēja jaunu piramidālu torni).

1524. gadā baznīca smagi cieta tā sauktajos svētbilžu grautiņos – luterāņu pūlis iebruka Rīgas baznīcās, tās izdemolējot. Nemierus uzsāka Rīgas melngalvji, kas Sv. Pētera baznīcā sadauzīja savu altāri, pēc tam pārējos altārus, sienu rotājumus, svētbildes. Tika sadedzināta arī baznīcas kapelas altārglezna, kuru gleznojis pats Albrehts Dīrers (Dürer1471.-1528.) , kurš uzturējies Rīgā 1521.—1522. gados. Rīgas rāte 1524. gada novembrī aizliedza baznīcā rīkot dievkalpojumus un konfiscēja tās īpašumu. Pēc katoļticīgo iedzīvotāju padzīšanas no pilsētas, ēka tika nodota luterāņu draudzei tās kulta vajadzībām.[2]

Pirmais tagadējā izskata tornis tika uzcelts 1491. gadā, (1456. gadā) bet 1666. gada 11. martā vairāk nekā 130 m augstais tornis vētrā pēc zibens spēriena sagāzās, tāpēc vēlāk 1671.-1690. gados būvmeistaru Ruperta Bindenšū un J. Jostena vadībā baznīca tika pārbūvēta, izbūvējot galveno fasādi, rietumu fasādi ar baroka stila portāliem. 1721. gadā tornī atkal iespēra zibens, izcēlās liels ugunsgrēks, liesmām apņemot visu ēku, un tornis atkal sabruka. Pavisam Pētera baznīcas tornī zibens iespēris 6 reizes. Torni 1743.-1746. gados uzcēla no jauna, un tā augstums bija 120,7 m (atjaunošana sākta ar Krievijas cara Pētera I personīgu rīkojumu, kurš pats esot piedalījies ugunsgrēka dzēšanā). Pētera baznīcas tornis līdz pat Otrajam pasaules karam bija augstākā koka celtne Eiropā. Par baznīcas ērģelnieku no 1767. līdz 1788. gadam strādāja J.S.Baha pēdējais skolnieks Johans Gotfrīds Mītels (Johann Gottfried Müthel).

Līdz pat 1773. gada likumam ēka kalpoja arī kā apbedījumu vieta. Tikai laikā no 1701. līdz 1773. gadam baznīcas velvēs un dārza kapsētā apglabāti 3576 cilvēki.[3] Līdz 1940. gadam bija reģistrēta Latvijas Iekšlietu ministrijas Baznīcu un konfesiju departamentā kā Vācu evaņģēliski luterisko draudžu savienībasdraudze, kuras praktiski visi locekļi kara gados pameta Latvijas teritoriju.

Degošā Rīga.

Kārtējo reizi Pētera baznīca smagi cieta vērmahta uzbrukuma laikā 1941. gada 29. jūnijā, kad degot sabruka tornis, ēkas jumts, smagi cieta fasāde. Pēc kara ēka palika valsts īpašumā, tajā neielaižot nevienu ticīgo draudzi.

Pēc LPSR valdības rīkojuma 1954.-1984. gadā baznīca tika restaurēta: baznīcas atjaunošanas darbus uzsāka 1954. gadā, vispirms atjaunojot kārniņu jumtu, bet 1967. gadā uzsākot unikālā torņa rekonstrukciju (1968.-1973. gads). Tagadējais tornis ir 123,25 metrus augsts un sastāv no metāla konstrukcijām, tajā iebūvēts lifts, kas apmeklētājus uzved 72 m augstumā. Torņa atjaunošana tika pabeigta 1973. gada 29. jūnijā, tajā pašā datumā, kad tas gāja bojā pirms 32 gadiem. Ēkā iekārtoja izstāžu un koncertu zāli, muzeju, kā arī skatu torni, no kura ļaudis varēja vērot Rīgas panorāmu. Ekā atradās Arhitektūras un pilsētbūvniecības propagandas centrs.

1975. gadā tika iedarbināts no Armēnijas atvestais torņa pulkstenis, bet 1976. gadā tika uzsākta pulksteņa zvanu spēle, kas 5 reizes dienā atskaņo latviešu tautas dziesmas “Rīga dimd” melodiju. Pilnībā Pētera baznīca tika atjaunota 1983. gadā, taču restaurācijas darbi turpinājās arī vēlākajos gados.

Vidusjoma griesti sasniedz 30 metru augstumā un tos pārsedz jaunas velves. Atjaunotas kapenes, to skaitā baroka formās veidotā Zilās pilsoņu gvardes kapene. Uzstādītas senās kokā grieztās epitāfijas, kas pirms kara bija izvestas uz Poliju un tur tika saglabātas – epitāfiju restaurācija turpinās. 1995. gada 21. augustā zālē atklāja Sv. Pētera baznīcas restauratoriem veltītu plāksni. Līdzekļus kanceles būvei ziedoja vācbaltu atbalsta grupa Vācijā “Forderkreis”. 1997. gadā sakristejā tika restaurētas E.Todes vitrāžas (vitrāžas māksliniece I.Kārkluvalka), sienas iesegtas ar atjaunotām holandiešu flīzēm (keramiķes I.Pētersone, D.Zvanītāja, I.Vipule).

1991. gada 29. jūnijā baznīcā tika atsākti dievkalpojumi, bet Latvijas Evaņģēliski luteriskā Baznīca (LELB) uzsāka sarunas ar valsti par ēkas pārņemšanu savā īpašumā.[4]

Gailis un lode — šī rotājuma simbolika

Plakanie vējrāži, arī ar gaiļa siluetu, ir pieskaitāmi pie senākajiem Ziemeļeiropas vēja rādītājiem — karogiem un pieder pie tā saukto pūķu karogu grupas. Pūķa karoga princips: vējrādis atrodas masta (karoga kāta) vienā pusē. Ja “karogu” veido gaiļa siluets, tad tas skatās pa vējam. Pētera baznīcai ir divi vēja rādītāji, kuri izgatavoti kā pūķu karogi. Tie atrodas celtnes austrumu daļā — viens vidusjoma jumta galā virs apsīdas, otrs — virs sakristejas. Abi ir vienādi un attēlo ejam svēto Pēteri ar atslēgu rokās. Kāpņu tornīšu arī rotā karodziņi, vienā no tiem izgriezts gada skaitlis “1723”.

Baznīcas torņus vainago ne tikai gailis, parasti torņa nobeigumu papildina tieši smailes galā uzstādīta lode. Iespējams, ka šim rotājuma elementam sākumā bijusi tikai dekoratīva loma, taču vēlāk tā kļuvusi par piemiņas rakstu glabātuvi. Lodē ievietoti ruļļi ar ziņām par celtnes vēsturei un celtniekiem.

Pētera baznīcai, kopš tās gotiskā 15. gadsimta torņa līdz 1941. gadam, bijuši seši vēja rādītāji — gaiļi.

1491. gadā pēc torņa pabeigšanas uzstāda pirmo gaili. 1538. gadā, kad tiek apšūts tornis ar vara plātnēm, šo gaili remontē. Tajā pašā gadā to atkal uzliek smailē. 1576. gadā spēcīga vētra gaili saliec, tāpēc to noņem.

1577. gada 13. jūlijā uzstāda jaunu, otro gaili. 1577. gada 4. oktobrī “neparasti stiprs vējš to nopūš” no torņa.

1578. gada 11. jūlijā uzliek jauno lodi, stieni un trešo gaili. Tas ir 1612. gadā Rīgas panorāmā (“Mollīna gravīrā”) attēlotais skrejošais gailis. 1651. gadā, pēc 73 gadu ilgas kalpošanas, stipri bojātu, to noņem.

1651. gada 14. maijā uzliek ļoti lielu apzeltītu ceturto gaili. 1659. gada 17. novembrī spēcīga vētra astoņos no rīta to kopā ar lodi norauj no stieņa un nosviež baznīcas pagalmā.

1660. gada 26. jūlijā tornī tiek uzlikts jauns apzeltīts piektais gailis, kurš atrodas torņa smailē, līdz tas 1666. gadā sabrūk.

1688. gadā Ruperts Bindenšū vaicā rātei, ko uzstādīt Pētera baznīcas torņa smailē — zvaigzni, kā paredzēts Jostena projektā, vai gaili. Pēc diviem mēnešiem viņš demonstrē torņa modeli, kuru rotā pilsētas mazais ģerbonis, divas atslēgas, krusts un valdnieka kronis. Smailes pašā augšā — gailis. Rāte to neakceptē, bet uzdod izgatavot jaunu modeli, kuru vainagotu vienīgi lode un gailis. Bindenšū izstrādā zīmējumu, kurā redzams smailes galā stāvošs gailis. Galīgajā variantā, kuru rāte pieņēma, bija iecerēts uz stieņa likt tupošu gaili.

1690. gada 10. maijā no pulksten astoņiem līdz deviņiem no rīta tornī uzliek sesto gaili. 1709. gadā šim vēja rādītājam remontē gaiļa saliekto asti. 1746. gada 9. oktobrī Johans Vilberns smailē uzliek pēc 1721. gada ugunsgrēka atjaunoto lodi un gaili. Tos uzver uz iepriekšējā torņa stieņa, kurš pēc iztaisnošanas un izlabošanas atkal iebūvē jaunā torņa konstrukcijā. 1941. gada 29. jūnijā gailis, lode un stienis, tornim gāžoties, nokrīt zemē. Gruvešos tie tiek uzmeklēti un pēc tam saglabāti. Tagad gailis un lode ir restaurēti un eksponēti Pētera baznīcā. Savukārt stienis jau trešo reizi ir iebūvēts torņa galā.

1970. gada 21. augustā uz tā uzlika jaunu, septīto gaili, kas ir iepriekšējā darinājuma precīza kopija. Gaiļa restaurācija notika arī 2009. gadā. Apzeltītais gailis ir 158 kg smags, no krūtīm līdz astes galam — 2,10 m garš, no sekstes augšas līdz vēdera apakšai — 1,53 m augsts. Gailis un zem tā esošā lode veidota no vara skārda, kas pārklāts ar ļoti plānām zelta plāksnītēm, izmantots 140 gramu zelta.

Attēlu galerija

 

 

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Rīgas pils

Koordinātas56°57′3″N 24°5′59″E (karteRīgas pils (Rīgas ordeņpils) ir viduslaiku pils, Latvijas Republikas Valsts prezidenta rezidence RīgāDaugavas krastā. Livonijas ordeņa pils — mestra rezidence šajā vietā uzcelta 1340. gadu beigās[1] (Rīgas II ordeņpils), 1484. gadā nopostīta, un 1515. gadā uzcelta no jauna (Rīgas III ordeņpils).

Rīgas pils Daugavas krastmalā Vecrīgā pie Vanšu tilta. Foto: Atis Luguzs
Rīgas pils Daugavas krastmalā Vecrīgā pie Vanšu tilta. Aiz pils redzams Sv. Jēkaba katedrāles tornis. Labajā pusē pils ainavā iekļaujas Sāpju Dievmātes katoļu baznīca.

Vēlāk pilī atradās poļu un zviedru vietvalžu rezidences. Pēc tam Krievijas impērijas Baltijas provinču (Rīgas) ģenerālgubernatoru un Vidzemes gubernatoru mītne.

Kad Latvija kļuva par neatkarīgu valsti, pilī ierīkota Latvijas Republikas Valsts prezidenta rezidence. Padomju laikā Rīgas pilī atradās Pionieru pils un dažādi muzeji.

Pēc Latvijas neatkarības atjaunošanas tā restaurēta. Pilī iekārtotas reprezentācijas telpas un Valsts prezidenta apartamenti. Rīgas pils ir Valsts nozīmes arhitektūras piemineklis, viena no Vecrīgas dominantēm, viena no izcilākajām viduslaiku pilīm Latvijā. Rīgas pils Sūtņu akreditācijas zāles interjers iekļauts Latvijas kultūras kanona arhitektūras un dizaina sadaļā.[2]

Rīgas pils Vēsture

Pirmā Zobenbrāļu ordeņa pils (Rīgas I ordeņpils) atradās tagadējās Konventa sētas vietā Vecrīgā. Rīgas pilsoņi pili nopostīja Livonijas pilsoņu karā ar Livonijas ordeni (1297—1330).

1330. gadā, sakarā ar Livonijas pilsoņu kara miera līguma noteikumiem, Rīgas pilsētai bija jāatjauno Livonijas ordeņa cietoksnis Daugavmalā agrākā Svētā Gara hospitāļa vietā. No šīs vietas ordenis varēja kontrolēt kuģu satiksmi Daugavā. Vieta gan tiek ierādīta, taču, spriežot pēc vēstures avotiem, lielāko daļu pils celšanas darbu nākas organizēt pašam Livonijas ordenim.

Rīgas II ordeņpils

Rīgas pils 18.gadsimtā, J.K.Broces zīmējums

1340 . gada beigās pabeigta Rīgas pils (Rīgas II ordeņpils) celtniecība. Šī pils vēsturnieku aprindās tiek saukta par Monheimas Eberharda pili pēc jaunās pils pamatlicēja, toreizējā Livonijas ordeņa mestra vārda.[1] 1481. gadā, sakarā ar pastāvīgajiem nemieriem, Livonijas ordeņa mestrs, ordeņa arhīvs un kase tika pārvesti uz Cēsu viduslaiku pili. Kopš šī laika Livonijas ordeņa rezidence atradās Cēsīs.

1484. gadā Livonijas Konfederācijas iekšējo karu rezultātā Rīgas II ordeņpils tika vēlreiz pilnīgi nopostīta.

Rīgas III ordeņpils

1491. — 1515. gadā pils tika no jauna uzcelta uz vecās pils pamatiem. Virs galvenās ieejas pilī tika izvietota Svētās Marijas un tā laika Livonijas ordeņa zemes mestra Valtera fon Pletenberga skulptūras. Tās ir saglabājušās vēl šobrīd. 1562. gadā pēdējais Livonijas ordeņa mestrs Gothards Ketlers Rīgas pils telpās nodeva ordeņa regālijas Polijas karaļa pārstāvim Nikolajam Radvilam. Līdz ar to beidza pastāvēt Livonijas ordenis.

1621. gadā pils nonāca Zviedrijas karaļa pārvaldībā.  Tika uzsākti nolaistās pils sakārtošanas un nostiprināšanas darbi. 1783. gadā pilij uzceļ mūsdienās redzamo fasādi, notiek arī citi pārbūves darbi. 1795. gadā pilī tika iekārtota Rīgas (Vidzemes) ģenerālgubernatora mītne, kas šeit saglabājās līdz 1917. gadam. Krievijas Impērijas laikā pils arsenālu pārveidoja par tagadējo Austrumu piebūvi.

1860. gados pilī ienāca arī sabiedriskas zinātnes organizācijas. Šeit atradās telpas Baltijas senatnes un vēstures pētītāju biedrībai un Rīgas pilsoņu literāri praktiskajai biedrībai. Šādi tika likts pamats Rīgas pils izmantošanai muzeju vajadzībām.

Rīgas pils 19. gadsimtā

Latvijas brīvības cīņu laikā 1919. gada vasarā pils tornī sāka plīvot Latvijas karogs. Rīgas pilī iekārtoja Latvijas Valsts prezidenta kancelejas un Latvijas Ministru prezidenta darba un reprezentācijas telpas. Valsts prezidentam piešķīra telpas pils ziemeļu daļā, kādreizējās ģenerālgubernatora telpas. Pirmās brīvvalsts prezidenti strādāja un dzīvoja pilī. 1921. gadā telpu interjeru uzaicināja iekārtot Eiženu Laubi un Ansi Cīruli.

No 1938. līdz 1939. gadam Eižens Laube pārprojektēja Kārļa Ulmaņa darba telpas, modernizēja pils vestibilu, uzcēla augstāko pils torni — Trīs Zvaigžņu torni, uzbūvēta svētku zāle un Priekšpilī iekārtots Valsts prezidenta kabinets.[3] Šīs pārbūves radīja izcilus Art Deco stila interjerus un mākslas darbus.

Tūlīt pēc Latvijas valsts neatkarības iznīcināšanas 1940. gadā kādreizējā Valsts prezidenta pilī apmetās Latvijas PSR Tautas komisāru padome. 1941. gada janvārī Latvijas PSR Tautas komisāru padome pieņēma lēmumu par Rīgas pils nodošanu Republikas pionieru vajadzībām. Un 1941. gada februārī pils ziemeļu daļā tika iekārtota Pionieru pils. 1952. gadā Latvijas PSR Pionieru pili nodeva Rīgas pilsētas Darbaļaužu deputātu padomes Izpildu komitejai un pārdēvēta par Rīgas Pionieru pili.

1956. gadā Svētku zāles gleznojumiem pievienoja Ģederta Eliasa gleznu ”1905. gads”, T. Graša ”Dziesmu svētki” un P. Ozoliņa ”Līgo svētki”.[4]

1988. gada 11. novembrī pils tornī atkal tika pacelts Latvijas valsts karogs. 1994. gadā pilī atgriezās Latvijas Valsts prezidents.

Rīgas pils 21. gadsimtā

2013. gada 20. jūnija vakarā Rīgas pilī izcēlās paaugstinātas bīstamības ugunsgrēks, kurā cieta pils jumta konstrukcijas un bēniņi 2400 kvadrātmetru platībā kā arī pils ceturtais stāvs 600 kvadrātmetru un trešais stāvs 200 kvadrātmetru platībā. Gandrīz pilnībā izdega Valsts Prezidenta pils Sarkanā zāle, mazāk bojāta Baltā zāle, Svētku zāle, Sūtņu zāle un Ģerboņu zāle. Ugunsgrēkā cietusi arī daļa no Nacionālā vēstures muzeja telpām.[5] Ugunsgrēku izdevās likvidēt nākamajā dienā pulksten 14.21.

2015. gada nogalē pabeigta Rīgas pils Priekšpils un Austrumu piebūves restaurācija, kas ilga 3 gadus.[6] 2016. gada 22. augustā Latvijas prezidents Raimonds Vējonis atgriezās savā atjaunotajā darba vietā.

Apraksts

Triju zvaigžņu tornis

Rīgas pils, 1789

Saskaņā ar 17. gadsimta plāniem Rīgas pils sākotnēji bija no visām pusēm norobežota ar ūdens šķēršļiem.

Nav saglabājušies laikabiedru zīmēti Rīgas II ordeņpils attēli, ziņas par tās uzbūvi ir diezgan pretrunīgas. Ir grūti nošķirt II un III ordeņpils būvelementus.

Mūsdienās redzamās III ordeņpils viduslaiku daļa pēc plānojuma ir tuvu kvadrātam, kura malu garums — ap 53 — 57 metri. Viduslaiku pilij bija četri korpusi, kas ietvēra iekšpagalmu. Dienvidaustrumu un ziemeļrietumu stūros izbūvēti masīvi apaļie torņi. Abos pārējos stūros ir mazāki četrstūraini torņi. Mūsdienās pilij ir seši torņi — pils stūros ir Sv. Gara, Svina, Pipera, Ziemeļu tornis. Pēc viduslaikiem ir celti divi torņi — Erkera tornis (17. gadsimta vidus) un Triju zvaigžņu tornis (1938—1939). Rīgas pils sienas ir ap 3 metrus biezas.

Pils apkaimē vairākkārt atrastas pazemes eju atliekas.

Iekšpagalmā atrodas divi izcili vēlās gotikas — manierisma stila ciļņi — “Mestrs Valters fon Pletenbergs” (1515) un “Madonna ar bērnu” (1515). 1649. gadā celto Erkera torni bagātīgi rotā agrīnā baroka stila ciļņi.

Prezidenta kabinets Rīgas pilī

Lai nokļūtu Latvijas Valsts prezidenta kabinetā ir jāiziet cauri anfilādei. Tā sastāv no trim dažādiem kabinetiem — Zaļā salona, Adjutanta telpas (Sarkanā salona) un Sekretāra kabineta (Zilā salona). Zaļajā salonā ir izvietotas Jūlija Federa gleznas un bīdermeijera sarkankoka mēbeļu komplekts. Adjutanta telpā ir izvietoti Latvijas valdnieku portreti un vitrīna ar valsts apbalvojumiem. Sekretāra kabinetā izvietotas Garlība Merķeļa un Johana Kristofa Broces portreti.

Eižens Laube Kārlim Ulmanim kabinetu izveidoja apvienojot divas Gustava Zemgala dzīvokļa telpas.[3] Ozolkoka durvis aiz Valsts prezidenta darba gada, kas ved uz prezidenta dzīvokli tika atvestas no Apriķu muižas.[3]Iepriekš kabinetā bija izvietotas Vilhelma Purvīša gleznas, bet pēc kopš 2015. gada tās ir nomainītas pret Daces Lielās un Līgas Purmales gleznām.[3]

Baltā zāle

Rīgas pils Baltā zāle agrāk saukta arī par Ķeizara zāli. Zāle būvēta 1818. gadā un tās arhitekts ir Frīdrihs Kristiāns fon Breitkreics. Par godu Krievijas impērijas ķeizara Aleksandra II vizītei pēc Paula Hardenaka projekta no 1860. līdz 1862. gadam zāle tika pārveidota iegūstot klasicisma formas. 1938. gadā zāle pārbūves laikā tā ieguva gaišo toni un Baltās zāles nosaukumu. Pēc 2013. gada ugunsgrēka, kas nopostīja Baltās zāles griestus, tie tika uzbūvēti no jauna vadoties pēc arhīva materiālos atrastajām norādēm.[3]

Sūtņu akreditācijas zāle Rīgas pilī

Šī zāle tiek uzskatīta par visautentiskāko Latvijas pirmās brīvvalsts laika paraugu Rīgas pilī. Un oriģinālu latviešu Art Deco interjera stila pienesumu pasaulei.[3]Tādēļ šī zāle ir iekļauta Latvijas kultūras kanonā. Zāle ir izveidota bijušajā Lielajā pils viesistabā. Pēc Jāņa Čakstes pasūtījuma šai zālei interjeru veidoja Ansis Cīrulis.

Ģerboņu zāle

Šī sākotnēji bija Sarkanā zāle jeb ģenerālgubernatora ēdamzāle Rīgas pilī. To 1929. gadā sagaidot Zviedrijas karali Gustavu V pārtaisīja par Ģerboņu zāli. Zāles izveides procesā uz griestiem tika attēloti Latvijas pilsētu ģerboņi. Zāles rekonstrukcijas laikā 2015. gadā, griestu zīmējums tika papildināts ar iztrūkstošajiem ģerboņiem. Pie sienām izvietoti četru Latvijas pirmo prezidentu portreti. Rīgas pils Ģerboņu zālē atrodas 20. gadsimta 20. gadu beigās iegādātie Karēlijas bērza mēbeļu komplekti. No tiem iespējams izveidot pārrunu telpu līdz 80 personām.[3]

Svētku zāle

Svētku zāli Rīgas pilī atklāja 1938. gadā uz Latvijas 20. gadu svinībām. Zāles projekta autors ir Eižens Laube un tā ir veidota veco piļu koka arhitektūrā ar latvisku noskaņu.[3] Zāle tika izveidota 6 mēnešu laikā un tās ātrās būvniecības kļūdas tika konstatētas un labotas zāles rekonstrukcijas laikā, kā arī lielu postījumu zālei nodarīja 2013. gada ugunsgrēks. Zāles platība ir 470 m3 un tā stiepjas līdz pat Austrumu piebūves vidum. Rekonstrukcijas laikā tika atjaunoti 1938. gadā aizmūrētie logi. Zāles dienvidu galā tika atjaunots Muzikantu balkons, kur padomju laikos bija uzbūvēta skatuve.

Atsauces

  1. ↑ Pārlēkt uz augšu uz:1,0 1,1 Caune M. Rīgas pils — senā un mainīgā. Rīga, 2004.
  2. Pārlēkt uz augšu Ilze Martinsone. «Rīgas pils Sūtņu akreditācijas zāles interjers 1923-1929». Skatīts: 2013. gada 24. martā.
  3. ↑ Pārlēkt uz augšu uz:3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 3,7 Šuste, Marta. “Rīgas pils – senā… vai mainīgā?”. Latvijas arhitektūra (AB&D Alianse) Burtnīca Nr.129: 14.–23. lpp.. ISSN 1407-4923.
  4. Pārlēkt uz augšu Rīgas Pionieru pils vēsture
  5. Pārlēkt uz augšu Rīgas pilī izdeguši 3200 kvadrātmetri; ugunsgrēkā cietušas gandrīz visas pils lielākās zāles laikraksts Diena 2013. gada 21. jūnijā
  6. Pārlēkt uz augšu «Prezidenta pils atgūst spozmi»Delfi. 2015. gada 30. decembrī.

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Riga

Riga (/ˈrɡə/LatvianRīgapronounced [ˈriːɡa] (About this sound listen)) is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 641,481 inhabitants (2016),[3] it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia’s population and one tenth of the three Baltic states’ combined population.[6] The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava. Riga’s territory covers 307.17 square kilometres (118.60 square miles) and lies between one and ten metres (3 feet 3 inches and 32 feet 10 inches) above sea level,[7] on a flat and sandy plain.[7]Lasīt par Rīgu latviešu valodā > šeit >

Riga
Rīga
City
From top, left to right: the Freedom Monument, the Riga City Council building, the House of the Blackheads, Līvu Square, and the Latvian National Opera

From top, left to right: the Freedom Monument, the Riga City Council building, the House of the Blackheads, Līvu Square, and the Latvian National Opera
Flag of Riga
Flag
Coat of arms of Riga
Coat of arms
Location of Riga within Latvia
Location of Riga within Latvia
Coordinates: 56°56′56″N 24°6′23″ECoordinates56°56′56″N 24°6′23″E
Country  Latvia
Government[1]
 • Type City council
 • Mayor Nils Ušakovs
Area (2002)[2]
 • City 324 km2 (125 sq mi)
 • Land 275.5 km2 (106.4 sq mi)
 • Water 48.50 km2 (18.73 sq mi)  15.8%
 • Metro 10,133 km2 (3,912 sq mi)
Population (2017)[3]
 • City 641,423
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,018,295 (Riga Planning Region)
 • Metro density 101.4/km2 (263/sq mi)
 • Demonym Rīdzinieki
Ethnicity (2016)[4]
 • Latvians 46.2%
 • Russians 37.7%
 • Belarusians 3.9%
 • Ukrainians 3.5%
 • Poles 1.8%
 • Lithuanians 0.8%
 • Romanies 0.1%
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Calling codes 66 and 67
GDP(nominal) 2012
 – Total €12($15) billion[5]
 – Per capita €18,000($21,000)
Website www.riga.lv
Historic Centre of Riga
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Old Town of Riga

The old town of Riga – Vecrīga
Criteria Cultural: i, ii
Reference 852
Inscription 1997 (21st Session)
Area 438.3 ha
Buffer zone 1,574.2 ha

Riga was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga’s historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture.[8]Riga was the European Capital of Culture during 2014, along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men’s World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women’s Curling Championship. It is home to the European Union‘s office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC).

In 2016, Riga received 2.3 million visitors.[9] It is served by Riga International Airport, the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities,[10] the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC)[11] and Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU).[12]

Origin of the name Riga

One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River.[13][14] The other is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West,[15] as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the “j” becoming a “g” in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt (1589),[16][17] and German historian Dionysius Fabricius (1610) confirms the origin of Riga from rija.[16][18] Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava.[19]

History of Riga

Historical affiliations
 Terra Mariana (condominium of Archbishops of Riga and Livonian Order) 1201–1561
 Imperial Free City 1561–1582
 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1629
 Swedish Empire 1629–1721
 Russian Empire 1721–1917
 German Empire 1917–1918
Latvia Republic of Latvia 1918–1940
 Soviet Union 1940–1941
 Nazi Germany 1941–1944
Soviet UnionLatvian Soviet Socialist Republic Soviet Union 1944–1991Latvia Republic of Latvia 1991–present

Founding of Riga

The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings’ Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.[16] A sheltered natural harbour 15 km (9.3 mi) upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today’s Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century.[16] It was settled by the Livs, an ancient Finnic tribe.[13]

The building of the Brotherhood of Blackheads is one of the most iconic buildings of Old Riga (Vecrīga)

Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages.[16] Riga’s inhabitants occupied themselves mainly with fishing, animal husbandry, and trading, later developing crafts (in bone, wood, amber, and iron).[16]

The Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus (ancient port), and describes dwellings and warehouses used to store mostly corn, flax, and hides.[16] German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158.

Along with German traders also arrived the monk Meinhard of Segeberg[15] to convert the Livonian pagans to ChristianityCatholic and Orthodox Christianity had already arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, and many Latvians baptised.[15][16] Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, and established his bishopric there.[15] The Livs, however, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, having failed his mission.[20] In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders[20] and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization.[15][16] Berthold was killed soon afterwards and his forces defeated.[20]

The Church mobilised to avenge. Pope Innocent III issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians.[20] Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of UthledePrince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200[16][20] with 23 ships[21] and 500 Westphalian crusaders.[22] In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, extorting agreement to do so from the elders of Riga by force.[16]

Under Bishop Albert

The year 1201 also marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina.[23] To defend territory[24] and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles and merchants.[23]

Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started on fortification of the town.[23][25] Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a fief[26] and principality of the Holy Roman Empire.[16] To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third.[27] Until then, it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and then return home.[27]

Albert had ensured Riga’s commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga.[27] In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage,[16] and Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom.[28] Riga was not yet secure as an alliance of tribes failed to take Riga.[27] In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage.[23] Polotsk conceded Kukenois (Koknese) and Jersika to Albert, also ending the Livs’ tribute to Polotsk.[29]

Riga’s merchant citizenry chafed and sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga[24] and adopted a city constitution.[30]

That same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia.[31] Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not reach Riga. The Danes landed in Livonia, built a fortress at Reval (Tallinn) and set about conquering Estonian and Livonian lands. The Germans attempted, but failed, to assassinate Valdemar.[32] Albert was able to reach an accommodation with them a year later, however and, in 1222, Valdemar returned all Livonian lands and possessions to Albert’s control.[33]

Albert’s difficulties with Riga’s citizenry continued; with papal intervention, a settlement was reached in 1225 whereby they no longer had to pay tax to the Bishop of Riga,[34] and Riga’s citizens acquired the right to elect their magistrates and town councillors.[34] In 1226, Albert consecrated the Dom Cathedral,[16] built St. James’s Church,[16] (now a cathedral) and founded a parochial school at the Church of St. George.[15]

In 1227, Albert conquered Oesel[35] and the city of Riga concluded a treaty with the Principality of Smolensk giving Polotsk to Riga.[36]

Albert died in January 1229.[37] He failed in his aspiration to be anointed archbishop[26] but the German hegemony he established over the Baltic would last for seven centuries.[27]

Riga in the 16th century

Riga and Hanseatic League

In 1282, Riga became a member of the Hanseatic League. The Hansa was instrumental in giving Riga economic and political stability, thus providing the city with a strong foundation which endured the political conflagrations that were to come, down to modern times.

Riga in 1650. Drawing by Johann Christoph Brotze

Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Swedish and Russian Empires

As the influence of the Hanseatic League waned, Riga became the object of foreign military, political, religious and economic aspirations. Riga accepted the Reformation in 1522, ending the power of the archbishops. In 1524, iconoclasts targeted a statue of the Virgin Mary in the Cathedral to make a statement against religious icons. It was accused of being a witch, and given a trial by water in the Daugava River. The statue floated, so it was denounced as a witch and burnt at Kubsberg.[38] With the demise of the Livonian Order during the Livonian War, Riga for twenty years had the status of a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire before it came under the influence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Treaty of Drohiczyn, which ended the war for Riga in 1581. In 1621, during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), Riga and the outlying fortress of Daugavgriva came under the rule of Gustavus AdolphusKing of Sweden, who intervened in the Thirty Years’ War not only for political and economic gain but also in favour of German Lutheran Protestantism. During the Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658), Riga withstood a siege by Russian forces.

Riga remained the largest city in Sweden until 1710,[citation needed] a period during which the city retained a great deal of autonomous self-government. In that year, in the course of the Great Northern War, Russia under Tsar Peter the Great besieged plague-stricken Riga. Along with the other Livonian towns and gentry, Riga capitulated to Russia, but largely retained their privileges. Riga was made the capital of the Governorate of Riga (later: Livonia)Sweden’s northern dominance had ended, and Russia’s emergence as the strongest Northern power was formalised through the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Riga became an industrialised port city of the Russian empire, in which it remained until World War I. By 1900, Riga was the third largest city in Russia after Moscow and Saint Petersburg in terms of the number of industrial workers and number of theatres.

German troops entering Riga during World War I.

During these many centuries of war and changes of power in the Baltic, and despite demographic changes, the Baltic Germans in Riga had maintained a dominant position. By 1867, Riga’s population was 42.9% German.[39] Riga employed German as its official language of administration until the installation of Russian in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces, as part of the policy of Russification of the non-Russian speaking territories of the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, Finland and the Baltics, undertaken by Tsar Alexander III. More and more Latvians started moving to the city during the mid-19th century. The rise of a Latvian bourgeoisie made Riga a centre of the Latvian National Awakening with the founding of the Riga Latvian Association in 1868 and the organisation of the first national song festival in 1873. The nationalist movement of the Neo-Latvians was followed by the socialist New Current during the city’s rapid industrialisation, culminating in the 1905 Revolution led by the Latvian Social Democratic Workers’ Party.

World War I impact to Riga

The 20th century brought World War I and the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1917 to Riga. In consequence of the battle of Jugla, the German army marched into Riga on 3 September 1917.[40] On 3 March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving the Baltic countries to Germany. Because of the Armistice with Germany of 11 November 1918, Germany had to renounce that treaty, as did Russia, leaving Latvia and the other Baltic States in a position to claim independence. Latvia, with Riga as its capital city, thus declared its independence on 18 November 1918. Between World War I and World War II (1918–1940), Riga and Latvia shifted their focus from Russia to the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom and Germany replaced Russia as Latvia’s major trade partners. The majority of the Baltic Germans were resettled in late 1939, prior to the occupation of Estonia and Latvia by the Soviet Union in June 1940.

World War II

During World War II, Latvia was occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and then was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944. On June 17, 1940, the Soviet forces invaded Latvia occupying bridges, post/telephone, telegraph, and broadcasting offices. Three days later, Latvian president Karlis Ulmanis was forced to approve a pro-Soviet government which had taken office. On July 14–15, rigged elections were held in Latvia and the other Baltic states, The ballots held following instructions: “Only the list of the Latvian Working People’s Bloc must be deposited in the ballot box. The ballot must be deposited without any changes.” The alleged voter activity index was 97.6%. Most notably, the complete election results were published in Moscow 12 hours before the election closed. Soviet electoral documents found later substantiated that the results were completely fabricated. Tribunals were set up to punish “traitors to the people” – those who had fallen short of the “political duty” of voting Latvia into the USSR and those who failed to have their passports stamped for so voting were allowed to be shot in the back of the head. The Soviet authorities, having regained control over Riga and Latvia imposed a regime of terror, opening the headquarters of the KGB, massive deportations started. Hundreds of men were arrested, including leaders of the former Latvian government. The most notorious deportation, the June deportation took place on June 13 and June 14, 1941, estimated at 15,600 men, women, and children, and including 20% of Latvia’s last legal government. Similar deportations were repeated after the end of WWII. The building of the KGB located in Brīvības iela 61, known as ‘the corner house’, is now a museum. Stalin’s deportations also included thousands of Latvian Jews. (The mass deportation totalled 131,500 across the Baltics.) Similar atrocities were made after the Nazi occupation of Latvia when the city’s Jewish community was forced into the Riga Ghetto and a Nazi concentration camp was constructed in Kaiserwald. On 25 October 1941, the Nazis relocated all Jews from Riga and the vicinity to the ghetto. Most of Latvia’s Jews (about 24,000) were killed on 30 November and 8 December 1941 in the Rumbula massacre.[41] By the end of the war, the remaining Baltic Germans were expelled to Germany.

The Soviet Red Army re-entered Riga on 13 October 1944. In the following years the massive influx of labourers, administrators, military personnel, and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started. Microdistricts of the large multi-storied housing blocks were built to house immigrant workers.

By the end of the war, Rīga’s historical centre was heavily damaged because of constant bombing. After the war, huge efforts were made to reconstruct and renovate most of the famous buildings that were part of the skyline of the city before the war. Such buildings were, amongst others: St. Peter’s Church which lost its wooden tower after a fire caused by the Wehrmacht (renovated in 1954). Other example is The House of the Blackheads, completely destroyed, its ruins were subsequently demolished. A facsimile was subsequently constructed in 1995.

In 1989, the percentage of Latvians in Riga had fallen to 36.5%.[42]

Riga 21st century

In 2004, the arrival of low-cost airlines resulted in cheaper flights from other European cities such as London and Berlin and consequently a substantial increase in numbers of tourists.[43]

In November 2013, the roof of a supermarket collapsed, possibly as a result of the weight of materials used in the construction of a garden on the roof. At least 54 people were killed. The Latvian President Andris Berzins described the disaster as “a large scale murder of many defenceless people”.[44]

Riga was the European Capital of Culture in 2014.[45] During the Latvia’s Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2015 the 4th Eastern Partnership Summit took place in Riga.[46]

Geography of Riga

The river Daugava flows through Riga

Administrative divisions of Riga

Riga’s administrative divisions consist of six administrative entities: CentralKurzeme and Northern Districts and the LatgaleVidzeme and Zemgale Suburbs. Three entities were established on 1 September 1941, and the other three were established in October 1969.[47] There are no official lower level administrative units, but the Riga City Council Development Agency is working on a plan, which officially makes Riga consist of 58 neighbourhoods.[48] The current names were confirmed on 28 December 1990.[49]

Panorama over Riga from St. Peter’s Church

Climate of Riga

The climate of Riga is humid continental (Köppen Dfb). The coldest months are January and February, when the average temperature is −5 °C (23 °F) but temperatures as low as −20 to −25 °C (−4 to −13 °F) can be observed almost every year on the coldest days. The proximity of the sea causes frequent autumn rains and fogs. Continuous snow cover may last eighty days. The summers in Riga are cool and humid with the average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F), while the temperature on the hottest days can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Riga
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
10.2
(50.4)
13.5
(56.3)
20.5
(68.9)
27.9
(82.2)
30.1
(86.2)
32.5
(90.5)
34.1
(93.4)
33.6
(92.5)
29.3
(84.7)
23.4
(74.1)
17.2
(63)
11.5
(52.7)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F)
−2.3
(27.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
2.7
(36.9)
9.8
(49.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.1
(68.2)
21.7
(71.1)
21.0
(69.8)
16.3
(61.3)
10.4
(50.7)
3.9
(39)
0.3
(32.5)
9.87
(49.76)
Daily mean °C (°F)
−5.1
(22.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.4
(41.7)
11.1
(52)
15.1
(59.2)
17.0
(62.6)
16.4
(61.5)
12.2
(54)
7.2
(45)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
6.1
(42.98)
Average low °C (°F)
−7.8
(18)
−7.6
(18.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
1.0
(33.8)
5.9
(42.6)
10.0
(50)
12.3
(54.1)
11.8
(53.2)
8.0
(46.4)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.33
(36.19)
Record low °C (°F)
−33.7
(−28.7)
−34.9
(−30.8)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−11.4
(11.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.0
(39.2)
0.0
(32)
−4.1
(24.6)
−8.7
(16.3)
−18.9
(−2)
−31.9
(−25.4)
−34.9
(−30.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
33.7
(1.327)
27.0
(1.063)
27.9
(1.098)
41.1
(1.618)
42.5
(1.673)
59.9
(2.358)
74.3
(2.925)
73.1
(2.878)
78.9
(3.106)
60.2
(2.37)
57.3
(2.256)
46.0
(1.811)
620.9
(24.445)
Average precipitation days
21.5 18.6 15.7 11.0 11.8 12.1 12.8 13.7 13.0 16.0 18.9 20.6 185.7
Average relative humidity (%)
87.9 85.2 79.4 69.7 67.7 72.0 74.2 76.7 81.1 85.1 90.2 89.4 79.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours
31.0 62.2 127.1 183.0 263.5 288.0 263.5 229.4 153.0 93.0 39.0 21.7 1,754.4
Source #1: Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency (avg high and low)[50]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and extremes)[51]

Government of Riga

Nils Ušakovs, the first ethnic Russian mayor of Riga in independent Latvia

The head of the city government in Riga is the mayor. Incumbent mayor Nils Ušakovs, who is a member of the Harmony party, took office on 1 July 2009.

The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city. The Council consists of 60 members who are elected every four years. The Presidium of the Riga City Council consists of the Chairman of the Riga City Council and the representatives delegated by the political parties or party blocks elected to the City Council.

Demographics of Riga

With 639,630 inhabitants in 2016 as according to the Central statistical administration of Latvia,[3] Riga is the largest city in the Baltic States, though its population has decreased from just over 900,000 in 1991.[3] Notable causes include emigration and low birth rates. Some have estimated that the population may fall by as much as 50% by 2050.[52][not in citation given][who?] According to the 2017 data, ethnic Latvians made up 44.03% of the population of Riga, while ethnic Russians formed 37.88%, Belarusians 3.72%, Ukrainians 3.66%, Poles 1.83% and other ethnicities 9.10%. By comparison, 60.1% of Latvia’s total population was ethnically Latvian, 26.2% Russian, 3.3% Belarusian, 2.4% Ukrainian, 2.1% Polish, 1.2% are Lithuanian and the rest of other origins.[53]

Upon the restoration of Latvia’s independence in 1991, Soviet era immigrants (and any of their offspring born before 1991) were not automatically granted Latvian citizenship because they had migrated to the territory of Latvia during the years when Latvia was part of the Soviet Union. In 2013 citizens of Latvia made up 73.1%, non-citizens 21.9% and citizens of other countries 4.9% of the population of Riga.[54] The proportion of ethnic Latvians in Riga increased from 36.5% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2010. In contrast, the percentage of Russians fell from 47.3% to 40.7% in the same time period. Latvians overtook Russians as the largest ethnic group in 2006.[4] Further projections show that the ethnic Russian population will continue a steady decline, despite higher birth rates, due to emigration.[citation needed]

Historic population figures of Riga

population in thousands.

Econom of Riga

Riga is one of the key economic and financial centres of the Baltic States. Roughly half of all the jobs in Latvia are in Riga and the city generates more than 50% of Latvia’s GDP as well as around half of Latvia’s exports. The biggest exporters are in wood products, IT, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, transport and metallurgy.[55] Riga Port is one of the largest in the Baltics. It handled a record 34 million tons of cargo in 2011[56] and has potential for future growth with new port developments on Krievu Sala.[57]Tourism is also a large industry in Riga and after a slowdown during the recent global economic recessions, grew 22% in 2011 alone.[58]

Culture of Riga

Theatres of Riga

  • The Latvian National Opera was founded in 1918. The repertoire of the theatre embraces all opera masterpieces. The Latvian National Opera is famous not only for its operas, but for its ballet troupe as well.[59]
  • The Latvian National Theatre was founded in 1919. The Latvian National Theatre preserves the traditions of Latvian drama school. It is one of the biggest theatres in Latvia.[60]
  • The Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theatre is the oldest professional drama theatre in Latvia, established in 1883. The repertoire of the theatre includes classical plays and experimental performances of Russian and other foreign playwrights.
  • The Daile Theatre was opened for the first time in 1920. It is one of the most successful theatres in Latvia. This theatre is distinguished by its frequent productions of modern foreign plays.[61]
  • Latvian State Puppet Theatre was founded in 1944. This theatre presents shows for children and adults.[62]
  • The New Riga Theatre was opened in 1992. It has an intelligent and attractive repertoire of high quality that focused on a modern, educated and socially active audience.

World Choir Games in Riga

Riga hosted the biannual 2014 World Choir Games from 9–19 July 2014 which coincided with the city being named European Capital of Culture for 2014.[63][64] The event, organised by the choral foundation, Interkultur, takes place at various host cities every two years and was originally known as the “Choir Olympics”.[65] The event regularly sees over 15’000 choristers in over 300 choirs from over 60 nations compete for gold, silver and bronze medals in over 20 categories. The competition is further divided into a Champions Competition and an Open Competition to allow choirs from all backgrounds to enter.[63] Choral workshops and festivals are also witnessed in the host cities and are usually open to the public.[66]

Architecture of Riga

Rīga, Vecrīgas panorāma, (rindā no kreisās) Doma, Sv. Pētera un Anglikāņu baznīca. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 3.feb.
Panorama of Riga – Towers of three churches, (from left) Rīgas Doms, Pēterbaznīca un Anglikāņu baznīca. Photo by  Atis Luguzs from photo session on Vanšu bridge over river Daugava.

The radio and TV tower of Riga is the tallest structure in Latvia and the Baltic States, and one of the tallest in the European Union, reaching 368.5 m (1,209 ft).

Riga centre also has many great examples of Art Nouveau architecture, as well as a medieval old town.

Art Nouveau of Riga

Art Nouveau building on Alberta ieladesigned by Mikhail Eisenstein

It is generally recognized that Riga has largest collection of Art Nouveau buildings in the world. This is due to the fact that at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, when Art Nouveau was at the height of its popularity, Riga experienced an unprecedented financial and demographic boom.[67] In the period from 1857 to 1914 its population grew from 282,000 (256,200 in Riga itself and another 26,200 inhabitants beyond the city limits in patrimonial district and military town of Ust-Dvinsk) to 558,000 making it the 4th largest city in the Russian Empire (after Saint-PetersburgMoscow and Warsaw) and its largest port.[67] The middle class of Riga used their acquired wealth to build imposing apartment blocks outside the former city walls. Local architects, mostly graduates of Riga Technical University, adopted current European movements and in particular Art Nouveau.[68] Between 1910 and 1913, between 300 and 500 new buildings were built each year in Riga, most of them in Art Nouveau style and most of them outside the old town.[68]

Sports in Riga

Riga has a rich basketball history. In the 1950s ASK Riga became the best club in the Soviet Union and also in Europe, winning the first three editions of the European Cup for Men’s Champions Clubs from 1958 to 1960.[69]

In 1960, ASK was not the only team from Riga to take the European crown. TTT Riga clinched their first title in the European Cup for Women’s Champion Clubs, turning Riga into the capital city of European basketball because for the first and, so far, only time in the history of European basketball, clubs from the same city were concurrent European Men’s and Women’s club champions.[70]

In 2015, Riga was one of the hosts for EuroBasket 2015.

Sports clubs of Riga

Sports facilities of Riga

Sports events in Riga

Transport in Riga

One of the several Trolleybus types in Riga

Riga, with its central geographic position and concentration of population, has always been the infrastructural hub of Latvia. Several national roads begin in Riga, and European route E22 crosses Riga from the east and west, while the Via Baltica crosses Riga from the south and north.

As a city situated by a river, Riga also has several bridges. The oldest standing bridge is the Railway Bridge, which is also the only railroad-carrying bridge in Riga. The Stone Bridge (Akmens tilts) connects Old Riga and Pārdaugava; the Island Bridge (Salu tilts) connects Maskavas Forštate and Pārdaugava via Zaķusala; and the Shroud Bridge (Vanšu tilts) connects Old Riga and Pārdaugava via Ķīpsala. In 2008, the first stage of the new Southern Bridge (Dienvidu tilts) route across the Daugava was completed, and was opened to traffic on 17 November.[72]

The Southern Bridge was the biggest construction project in the Baltic states in 20 years, and its purpose was to reduce traffic congestion in the city centre.[73][74] Another major construction project is the planned Riga Northern Transport Corridor;[75] its first segment detailed project was completed in 2015.[76]

The Freeport of Riga facilitates cargo and passenger traffic by sea. Sea ferries currently connect Riga Passenger Terminal to Stockholm operated by Tallink.[77]

Škoda 15 T tram in Riga

Riga has one active airport that serves commercial airlines—the Riga International Airport (RIX), built in 1973. Renovation and modernization of the airport was completed in 2001, coinciding with the 800th anniversary of the city. In 2006, a new terminal extension was opened. Extension of the runway was completed in October 2008, and the airport is now able to accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A340, Boeing 747, 757, 767 and 777. Another terminal extension is under construction as of 2014.[78] The annual number of passengers has grown from 310,000 in 1993 to 4.7 million in 2014, making Riga International Airport the largest in the Baltic States.

The former international airport of Riga, Spilve Airport, located 5 km (3.11 mi) from Riga city centre, is currently used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation. Riga was also home to a military air base during the Cold War — Rumbula Air Base.

Public transportation in the city is provided by Rīgas Satiksme which operates a large number of tramsbuses and trolleybuses on an extensive network of routes across the city. In addition, up until 2012 many private owners operated minibus services, after which the City Council established the unified transport company Rīgas mikroautobusu satiksme, establishing a monopoly over the service.

Riga is connected to the rest of Latvia by trains operated by the national carrier Passenger Train, whose headquarters are in Riga. There are also international rail services to Russia and Belarus, and plans to revive passenger rail traffic with Estonia. A TEN-T project called Rail Baltica envisages building a high-speed railway line via Riga connecting Tallinn to Warsaw using standard gauge,[79] expected to be put into operation in 2024.[80]

Riga International Coach Terminal provides domestic and international connections by coach.

Universities in Riga

Notable residents of Riga

Sister cities of Riga

Riga maintains sister city relationships with the following cities:[81]

See also

References for Riga

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Bibliography

External links

Jelgavas ziema saulainā rītā

Saulains un piesnidzis ziemas rīts Jelgavā, 2016. gada 29. novembrī. Kad pamostoties ārā pa logu ieraugi – jā tāda ainava ir reizi 10 gados.  Saule, bezvējš, piesnigušu koku atspulgi Lielupes un Driksas ūdenī. Jāņem tikai fotoaparāts jāskrien laukā bildēt. Citādi skaistums paspēs izkust, vējš atspulgus aizpūst. Saule pacelties pārāk augstu vai paslēpties aiz mākoņiem. Jelgavas ainavas: Bāka pie tējas namiņa. Mītavas tilts un Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis. Academia Petrina no Meža fakultātes parka. Pīlādži sniegā un Pasta salas krasts. Sniegs, saule un ziema 🙂

Woman in Red

I was frequently asked who is that woman in red on the painting I painted at #AffordableArtFair in #Stockholm in the October of 2016?
At first I think it was the spirit of Stockholm, but than I met her at Affordable Art Fair a year later – this fall in Stockholm and decided to paint her portrait.
Before you see it here is the story of sand, ship, seagulls and woman.

Here it is: Woman in red on the beach and the ship with seagulls at skyline. Painted while inspired by art at Affordable Art Fair at Stockholm in 2016. This was my first painting after 25 years I didn’t paint at all.

I was heading to swim when I got this #Stockholm panorama from the #Västerbron bridge.

There was #NorrMälarstrand homes and#Stockholm ‘s #stadshus (City Hall) on the left.

And #LångholmensKlippbad on the opposite side of #Riddarfjärden. Långholmens Klippbad turned out a romantic sandy beach surrounded by rocks right in front of the Stockholm’s city hall but wasn’t visible from it. Nice place to swim and get inspired for painting a painting. 

Seagulls folowed the ship on my trip to Stockholm and back to Riga.

The ship comes from #Vasamuseet in Stockholm. This is the painting of The Vasa ship capsized and sank in Stockholm 1628. After 333 years on the sea bed the mighty warship was salvaged and the voyage could continue. Today Vasa is the world’s only preserved 17th century ship and the most visited museum in Scandinavia.

And the woman in red (came up white finally) – Sylvia, manager of #AffordableArtFair at Stockholm. I used one of her photos to paint it right after the fair this year (2017).

Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis Jelgavā

Skats no Tējas namiņa uz Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas torni Jelgavā. Kafejnīca - kuģis apakšā.
Skats no Tējas namiņa uz Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas torni Jelgavā. Apakšā Kafejnīca – kuģis. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 7. feb.

Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas zvanu tornis ir apmeklētākais tūrisma objekts Jelgavā.

Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcu sāka celt 1574.gadā pēc Kurzemes un Zemgales hercoga Gotharda Ketlera pavēles. Tā bija pirmā no jauna uzceltā luterāņu mūra baznīca Eiropā un lielākā baznīca Zemgalē. Pēc baznīcas nopostīšanas 1944.gadā tā vairs netika atjaunota, tomēr zvanu tornis savu vietu saglabāja. 2010.gada novembrī pēc vērienīgiem rekonstrukcijas darbiem Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas zvanu tornis atdzimis jaunā veidolā.


Atjaunotajam Tornim ir deviņi stāvi. Šeit izvietotas trīs mūsdienīgas un interaktīvas vēstures ekspozīcijas: “Zemgale – Latvijas prezidentu šūpulis”, “Jelgava un Sv. Trīsvienības baznīca laikmetu griežos” un “Tautastērps Zemgalē”.

9.stāvā iespējams apskatīt gleznu izstādi, bet no skatu laukuma, 37 metru augstumā, var vērot Jelgavas pilsētas panorāmu uz visām debespusēm.

Tornī atrodas arī franču restorāns „La Tour de Marie”, konferenču zāle un tūrisma informācijas centrs.

Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis Jelgavā. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 7. feb.
Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis Jelgavā. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 7. feb.

Īpašie piedāvājumi:

Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis ir lieliska vieta oficiālu vai radošu pasākumu rīkošanai, pieejamas īpašas programmas dažādiem dzīves notikumiem:

  • kāzu dienā – iespēja salaulāties torņa skatu laukumā, sarīkot foto sesiju, nodejot pirmo valsi, sarīkot īpašu, kāzu tematikai pielāgotu radošo darbnīcu vai ekskursiju jaunlaulātajiem un viņu viesiem;
  • jubilejās un citās svinībās – iespēja sarīkot svinīgus vai izklaides pasākumus konferenču telpā, iespējams apvienot ar ekskursiju vai radošo darbnīcu;
  • korporatīvajiem pasākumiem – konferenču telpas semināriem, prezentācijām, izzinoši radošās nodarbības, lai kopā iemācītos ko jaunu un iepazītu latviešu tradīcijas;
  • ģimenēm ar bērniem – interaktīvās ekspozīcijas ir pielāgotas un interesantas dažāda vecuma bērniem, iespēja piedalīties izzinoši radošajās darbnīcās.

Darba laiki Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas Tornī šeit: >> http://visit.jelgava.lv

Jelgavas Svētās Trīsvienības baznīca

Jelgavas Svētās Trīsvienības Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca
Sv.Trisvienibas baznica.jpg

Jelgavas Svētās Trīsvienības Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca 20. gadsimta sākumā

Svētās Trīsvienības baznīca (Latvija)

Svētās Trīsvienības baznīca
Svētās Trīsvienības baznīca
Pamatinformācija
Atrašanās vieta Valsts karogs: Latvija Akadēmijas laukums 1JelgavaLatvija
Koordinātas 56°39′8.96″N 23°43′44.09″EKoordinātas56°39′8.96″N 23°43′44.09″E (karte)
Piederība konfesijai Luterāņi
Statuss Muzejs
Arhitektūras apraksts
Arhitekts Joriss Jorisons Frēze
Celtniecības beigas 1615

Jelgavas Svētās Trīsvienības Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca bija senākais dievnams un senākā mūra ēka Jelgavā. Pēc sagraušanas Otrā pasaules kara laikā saglabājies vienīgi Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis, kurā ierīkots tūrisma informācijas centrs, vēstures ekspozīcijas,skatu laukums 9.stāvā un restorāns. Arheoloģisko izrakumu laikā torņa austrumu pusē atsegta daļa no sākotnējā baznīcas joma, izveidojot iedziļinātu priekšlaukumu, un atsegti oriģinālie baznīcas ārsienu mūri. Priekšlaukuma centrā atrodas akmens skulptūra — strūklaka “Trīsvienība” (tēlnieks Jānis Aivars Karlovs). Atrodas Akadēmijas ielā 1, Jelgavā.

Papildus informācijai

  • Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas torņa buklets
  • O. Spārītis “Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas torņa stāsts

Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis Vēsturē

Zināms, ka Livonijas ordeņa valsts laikā 1522. gadā tagadējā Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas torņa vietā atradusies neliela koka katoļu baznīca. Neilgi pēc tam, kad hercogs Gothards Ketlers izvēlējās Jelgavu par vienu no savām rezidencēm un piešķīra tai pilsētas tiesības, 1574. gadā viņš blakus vecajai baznīcai lika celt jaunu mūra baznīcu pilsētas luterāņu draudzei, par kura autoru tiek uzskatīts holandiešu būvmeistars Joriss Jorisons Frēze. Baznīcas pulkstenis un zvani tika izgatavoti 1575. gadā. Valsts sadalīšanas, Polijas-Zviedrijas kara (1600-1629) un iekšējo cīņu dēļ baznīcu pabeidza celt tikai Frīdriha Ketlera valdīšanas laikā un iesvētīja 1615. gada 25. maijā. Baznīcas altāri 1641. gadā dāvināja hercoga Frīdriha sieva Pomerānijas princese Elizabete Magdalēna. Hercoga Frīdriha Kazimira valdīšanas laikā 1686.—1688. gadā pēc arhitekta Martina Knoha projekta uzbūvēja baznīcas torni, kas slējās 49,68 metru augstumā un bija augstākā celtne visā hercogistē. 1862. gadā arhitekta Emīla Strausa vadībā torni paaugstināja, tā augstums kopā ar apzeltīto krustu sasniedza 80,5 metrus un tā bija augstākā celtne pirmskara Jelgavā.

Pēc 1944. gada 27. jūlija PSRS aviācijas uzlidojuma Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca nodega un vairs netika atjaunota. 1954. gadā padomju armijas sapieri uzspridzināja baznīcas ēku, militārajām vajadzībām atstājot tikai torni. Izdegušais baznīcas tornis pilsētas centrā saglabājās visu PSRS okupācijas laiku.

Jelgavas Svētās Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis kopš 1998. gada ir iekļauts Valsts Kultūras pieminekļu sarakstā kā valsts nozīmes kultūras piemineklis. 2004. gadā, torni pārsedza ar stikla jumtu. Pašreizējais torņa augstums ir 50,17 metri. Tornim ir saglabāta Martina Knoha veidotā forma.

Projekta “Reģiona nozīmes tūrisma un kultūrizglītības centra izveide Jelgavā” ietvaros 2009.—2010. gadā notika torņa rekonstrukcija, muzeja un sabiedrisko telpu izveide.

Jelgavas Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis no bijušās baznīcas ēkas puses 2013. gadā

Torņa interjers

Jelgavas panorāma ar Svētās Trīsvienības baznīcu no Driksas puses (pēc 1750).

Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas iekšskats 20. gs. sākumā.

Atjaunotā Jelgavas Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas torņa deviņos stāvos iekārtotas šādas telpas:

  • 1. stāvs. Tūrisma informācijas centrs ar biļešu kasi, suvenīru veikals;
  • 3. stāvs. Vēstures ekspozīcija “Zemgale — Latvijas prezidentu šūpulis”;
  • 4. stāvs. Vēstures ekspozīcija “Jelgava un Sv. Trīsvienības baznīca laikmeta griežos”. Izmantojot skārienjūtīgus monitorus, iespējams virtuāli aplūkot vēsturisko baznīcu gan no ārpuses, gan iekšpuses;
  • 5. stāvs. Vēstures ekspozīcija “Tautas tērps Zemgalē”;
  • 7. stāvs. Konferenču zāle;
  • 8. stāvs. Restorāns;
  • 9. stāvs. Izstāžu zāle un skatu laukums, no kura iespējams vērot Jelgavas pilsētas panorāmu uz visām debespusēm.

Ārējās saites

Photography

Photography
Large format camera lens.jpg

Lens and mounting of a large-format camera
Other names Science or Art of creating durable images
Types Recording light or other electromagnetic radiation
Inventor Thomas Wedgwood (1800)
Related Stereoscopic, Full-spectrum, Light field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner

Photography is the scienceart, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.[1]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically “developed” into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

Etymology

The word “photography” was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), “light”[2] and γραφή (graphé) “representation by means of lines” or “drawing”,[3] together meaning “drawing with light”.[4]

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.[5] This claim is widely reported but apparently has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt.[citation needed] The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – especially Talbot’s – regarding Daguerre’s claim of invention.[6] The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed “J.M.”, believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler.[7] Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled facts.[citation needed]

The inventors Niépce, Talbot and Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word “photography”, but referred to their processes as “Heliography” (Niépce), “Photogenic Drawing” / “Talbotype” / “Calotype” (Talbot) and “Daguerreotype” (Daguerre).[7]

History

Precursor technologies

A camera obscura used for drawing

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, ancient Han Chinese philosopher Mo Di from the Mohist School of Logic was the first to discover and develop the scientific principles of opticscamera obscura, and pinhole camera. Later Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid also independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.[10] Both the Han Chinese polymath Shen Kuo (1031–95) and Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham(Alhazen) (965–1040) independently invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus(1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Shen Kuo explains the science of camera obscura and optical physics in his scientific work Dream Pool Essays while the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham‘s Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.[14][15][16]

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18]The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient ChinaLeonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura.

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means “dark chamber” in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

Invention of photography

Earliest known surviving heliographic engraving, 1825, printed from a metal plate made by Nicéphore Niépce.[19] The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it by photographic means. This was a step towards the first permanent photograph taken with a camera.

Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, and even made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that “the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver.” The shadow images eventually darkened all over.[20]

The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[19] Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens).[21]

View from the Window at Le Gras, 1826 or 1827, the earliest surviving camera photograph

Because Niépce’s camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy.

Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre’s efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotypeprocess. The essential elements—a silver-plated surface sensitized by iodine vapor, developed by mercuryvapor, and “fixed” with hot saturated salt water—were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to be visible. The existence of Daguerre’s process was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France soon agreed to pay Daguerre a pension in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred when complete working instructions were unveiled on 19 August 1839. In that same year, American photographer Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic self-portrait.

A latticed window in Lacock Abbey, England, photographed by William Fox Talbot in 1835. Shown here in positive form, this may be the oldest extant photographic negative made in a camera.

In BrazilHercules Florence had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming it Photographie.

Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Fox Talbot, had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silver images on paper as early as 1834 but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre’s invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot’s paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, which used the chemical development of a latent image to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot’s process, unlike Daguerre’s, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemical photography up to the present day, as Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[22] Talbot’s famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[23][24]

British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the “blueprint”. He was the first to use the terms “photography”, “negative” and “positive”. He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to “fix” silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

In the March 1851 issue of The ChemistFrederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908.

Glass plates were the medium for most original camera photography from the late 1850s until the general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s. Although the convenience of the film greatly popularized amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910s they were not available in the large formats preferred by most professional photographers, so the new medium did not immediately or completely replace the old. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications, such as astrophotography, continued into the 1990s, and in the niche field of laser holography, it has persisted into the 2010s.

Film photography

Undeveloped Arista black-and-white film, ISO 125/22°

Hurter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their work enabled the first quantitative measure of film speed to be devised.

The first flexible photographic roll film was marketed by George Eastman in 1885, but this original “film” was actually a coating on a paper base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose (“celluloid“), now usually called “nitrate film“.

Although cellulose acetate or “safety film” had been introduced by Kodak in 1908,[25] at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The changeover was not completed for X-ray films until 1933, and although safety film was always used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm motion pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951.

Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats.[26] Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, film continues to be used by enthusiasts and professional photographers. The distinctive “look” of film based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: (1) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (S-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with film vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors) [27] (2) resolution and (3) continuity of tone.[28]

Black-and-white

A photographic darkroom with safelight

Originally, all photography was monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its “classic” photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photography.[29] It is important to note that monochromatic pictures are not necessarily composed of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of gray but can involve shades of one particular hue depending on the process. The cyanotype process, for example, produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen printprocess first used more than 170 years ago, produces brownish tones.

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silver-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salvage certain photographs taken in color which are unsatisfactory in their original form; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are found to be more effective. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all image editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from one shot in color.

Color

The first color photograph made by the three-color method suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton. The subject is a colored, tartan patterned ribbon.

Color photography was explored beginning in the 1840s. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not “fix” the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855.[30][31] The foundation of virtually all practical color processes, Maxwell’s idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters.[30][31] This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image. Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

Color photography was possible long before Kodachrome, as this 1903 portrait by Sarah Angelina Aclanddemonstrates, but in its earliest years, the need for special equipment, long exposures, and complicated printing processes made it extremely rare.

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color “fringes” or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

Implementation of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

Kodachrome, the first modern “integral tripack” (or “monopack”) color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multi-layer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

Agfa’s similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently, available color films still employ a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa’s product.

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. After a transition period centered around 1995–2005, color film was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Film continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive “look”.

Digital photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film.[32] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken around the world are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones.

Synthesis photography

Synthesis photography is part of computer-generated imagery (CGI) where the shooting process is modeled on real photography. The CGI, creating digital copies of real universe, requires a visual representation process of these universes. Synthesis photography is the application of analog and digital photography in digital space. With the characteristics of the real photography but not being constrained by the physical limits of real world, synthesis photography allows to get away from real photography.[33]

Photographic techniques

Angles such as vertical, horizontal, or as pictured here diagonal are considered important photographic techniques

A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; stereoscopy; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques.

Cameras

The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic platephotographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory.[34]

Photographers control the camera and lens to “expose” the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a “latent image” (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor(CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper.

The camera (or ‘camera obscura‘) is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

As soon as photographic materials became “fast” (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small “detective” cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a “frame”. This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the “frame rate” (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person’s eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[35]

Stereoscopic

Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion.[36] While known colloquially as “3-D” photography, the more accurate term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods (including cell phone cameras).

Dualphotography

An example of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (e.g. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or two networked cameras for portal-plane dualphotography). The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image.[37]

Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared

This image of the rings of Saturn is an example of the application of ultraviolet photography in astronomy

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.

Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[38]

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters).

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photographygeologyforensics and law enforcement.

Light field photography

Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of “light field photography” (also known as synthetic aperture photography). This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected after the photograph has been captured.[39] As explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the “light field” is understood as 5-dimensional, with each point in 3-D space having attributes of two more angles that define the direction of each ray passing through that point.

These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel of the final image is actually a selection from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm.

Devices other than cameras can be used to record images. Trichome of Arabidopsis thaliana seen via scanning electron microscope. Note that image has been edited by adding colors to clarify structure or to add an aesthetic effect. Heiti Paves from Tallinn University of Technology.

Other imaging techniques

Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotographyPhotograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.

Modes of production

Amateur

An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby/passion and not necessarily for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera.[40] Nowadays it has spread widely through social media and is carried out throughout different platforms and equipment, switching to the use of cell phone as a key tool for making photography more accessible to everyone.

A photograph taken by an amateur photographer in Lebanon.

Indianapolis as a panorama and a modified fisheye image by an amateur photographer with image editing software
A large panorama photo of downtown Indianapolis
Downtown Indianapolis in a large panorama image
The same image of Indianapolis distorted into a circle
The same image but modified with a fisheye lens-style technique into a circle

Commercial

Example of a studio-made food photograph.

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

  • Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agencydesign firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
  • Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography, like the work featured in Harper’s Bazaar, emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men’s magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude.
  • Concert Photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well as the atmosphere (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the artist or band in addition to the venue.
  • Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
  • Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertising purposes.
  • Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills.
  • Editorial photography illustrates a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine and encompass fashion and glamour photography features.
    • Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.
  • Landscape photography depicts locations.
  • Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of animals.
  • Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people.
  • Pet photography involves several aspects that are similar to traditional studio portraits. It can also be done in natural lighting, outside of a studio, such as in a client’s home.

Landscape 360-degree panoramic picture of the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama DesertChile. In the center is Cerro Chajnantor itself. To the right, on the plateau, is the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope with Cerro Chascon behind it.[41]

The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism “A picture is worth a thousand words“, which has an interesting basis in the history of photography. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography.

Many people take photographs for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can employ a photographer directly, organize a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs. Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster.

Art

Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage shows unique aesthetic of black-and-white photos.

During the 20th century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred StieglitzEdward SteichenJohn SzarkowskiF. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, ‘romantic’ look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate ‘straight photography‘, the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.

The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images “written with light”; Nicéphore NiépceLouis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.

Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only “significant form” can distinguish art from what is not art.

There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible — significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.[42]

On 7 February 2007, Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph 99 Cent II Diptychon for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder, making it the most expensive at the time.[43]

Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.

Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a particular form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photographysocial documentary photographystreet photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver newsin a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining.

Science and forensics

The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Crime scene photos are taken from three vantage point. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-up.[44]

In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produced 12- or 24- hour photographic traces of the minute-by-minute variations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidityatmospheric electricity, and the three components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century.[45][46] Charles Brooke a little later developed similar instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.[47]

Science uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation.[48] Photography has become ubiquitous in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time.[49]

The first photographed atom was discovered in 2012 by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an “Ion” of the element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic film.[50]

Social and cultural implications

Photography may be used both to capture reality and to produce a work of art. While photo manipulation was often frowned upon at first, it was eventually used to great extent to produce artistic effects. Nude composition 19 from 1988 by Jaan Künnap.

The Musée de l’Élysée, founded in 1985 in Lausanne, was the first photography museum in Europe.

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her writing “On Photography” (1977), Susan Sontag discusses concerns about the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[51] Sontag argues, “To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one’s self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power.”[52] Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective form of representation.

Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its effect on society. In Alfred Hitchcock‘s Rear Window (1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. ‘Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing’.[52]

The camera doesn’t rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment.[52]

Digital imaging has raised ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post-processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make “photomontages“, passing them as “real” photographs. Today’s technology has made image editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allow digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography.

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society.[53]Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that “to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed.” Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality.[52]

One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a “tourist gaze”[54] in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a “reverse gaze”[55] through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.

Additionally, photography has been the topic of many songs in popular culture.

Law

Photography is both restricted as well as protected by the law in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the United States, photography is protected as a First Amendment right and anyone is free to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long as it is in plain view.[56] In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[57]

See also

References

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  51. Jump up^ Bissell, K.L. (2000) Photography and Objectivity.
  52. Jump up to:a b c d Sontag, S. (1977) On Photography, Penguin, London, pp. 3–24, ISBN 0312420099.
  53. Jump up^ Levinson, P. (1997) The Soft Edge: a Natural History and Future of the Information Revolution, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 37–48, ISBN 0415157854.
  54. Jump up^ Urry, John (2002). The tourist gaze (2nd ed.). SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-7347-8.
  55. Jump up^ Gillespie, Alex. “Tourist Photography and the Reverse Gaze”.
  56. Jump up^ “You Have Every Right to Photograph That Cop”American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
  57. Jump up^ “Jail for photographing police?”British Journal of Photography. 28 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010.

Further reading

Introduction

  • Photography. A Critical Introduction [Paperback], ed. by Liz Wells, 3rd edition, London [etc.]: Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30704-X

History

  • A New History of Photography, ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998
  • Franz-Xaver Schlegel, Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914–1935, 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, ISBN 3-00-004407-8.

Reference works

Other books

External links