Bridge

Izgaismotais Dzelzceļa tilts pār Lielupi Jelgavā. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2016.g. 2.apr.

Wiesen Viaduct in Switzerland

bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of watervalley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, and the funds available to build it.

Par tiltiem latviešu valodā skatīt > šeit >

Dzelzceļa un Akmens tils Rīgā pār Daugavu skatā no Vanšu tilta puses. Fonā Televīzijas tornis un galvenā TV ēka. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 3.feb.
Bridges over river Daugava in Riga, Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, 2018.feb.3

Etymology

The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge in Japan, currently the world’s longest suspension span

The Siosepol bridge over Zayandeh River is an example of Safavid dynasty(1502–1722) bridge design. EsfahanIran

The Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning.[1] The word can be traced directly back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-. The word for the card game of the same name has a different origin.

History of Bridges

The Arkadiko Bridge in Greece (13th century BC), one of the oldest arch bridges in existence

Bridges in AmsterdamNetherlands

The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between the fort of Tiryns and town of Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age (13th century BC), it is one of the oldest arch bridgesstill in existence and use. Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese.[2]

The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans.[3] The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs. Some stand today.[4] An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain. The Romans also used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone.[5] One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime, sand, and volcanic rockBrick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the technology for cement was lost (then later rediscovered).

In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of dams and bridges.[6] A Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep.[7] The bridge was swept away during a flood, and later repaired by Puspagupta, the chief architect of emperor Chandragupta I.[7] The use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century.[8] A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India.[9]

Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the Warring States, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui Dynasty. This bridge is also historically significant as it is the world’s oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge (approximately 2nd century AD), while the enormous Roman era Trajan’s Bridge (105 AD) featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction.[citation needed]

Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.

During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich GrubenmannJohannes Grubenmann, and others. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716.

A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779. It used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn.[10]

With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strengthto support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel.

In 1927 welding pioneer Stefan Bryła designed the first welded road bridge in the world, the Maurzyce Bridge which was later built across the river Słudwia at Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland in 1929. In 1995, the American Welding Society presented the Historic Welded Structure Award for the bridge to Poland.[11]

Animals

Eciton sp. forming a bridge

Before humans, ants have been making bridges using their own bodies to allow others to cross.

Types of bridges

Bridges can be categorized in several different ways. Common categories include the type of structural elements used, by what they carry, whether they are fixed or movable, and by the materials used.

Structure type

Bridges may be classified by how the forces of tensioncompressionbendingtorsion and shear are distributed through their structure. Most bridges will employ all of the principal forces to some degree, but only a few will predominate. The separation of forces may be quite clear. In a suspension or cable-stayed span, the elements in tension are distinct in shape and placement. In other cases the forces may be distributed among a large number of members, as in a truss.

BeamBridge-diagram.svgBeam bridge

Beam bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by substructure units and can be either simply supported when the beams only connect across a single span, or continuous when the beams are connected across two or more spans. When there are multiple spans, the intermediate supports are known as piers. The earliest beam bridges were simple logs that sat across streams and similar simple structures. In modern times, beam bridges can range from small, wooden beams to large, steel boxes. The vertical force on the bridge becomes a shear and flexural load on the beam which is transferred down its length to the substructures on either side[12] They are typically made of steel, concrete or wood. Girder bridgesand Plate girder bridges, usually made from steel, are types of Beam bridges. Box girder bridges, made from steel, concrete, or both are also beam bridges. Beam bridge spans rarely exceed 250 feet (76 m) long, as the flexural stresses increase proportional to the square of the length (and deflection increases proportional to the 4th power of the length).[13]However, the main span of the Rio-Niteroi Bridge, a box girder bridge, is 300 metres (980 ft).[citation needed]The world’s longest beam bridge is Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in southern Louisiana in the United States, at 23.83 miles (38.35 km), with individual spans of 56 feet (17 m).[14] Beam bridges are the simplest and oldest type[15] of bridge in use today, and are a popular type.[16]
TrussBridge-diagram.svgTruss bridge

A truss bridge is a bridge whose load-bearing superstructure is composed of a truss. This truss is a structure of connected elements forming triangular units. The connected elements (typically straight) may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. Truss bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges. The basic types of truss bridges shown in this article have simple designs which could be easily analyzed by nineteenth and early twentieth century engineers. A truss bridge is economical to construct owing to its efficient use of materials.
CantileverBridge-diagram.svgCantilever bridge

Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers—horizontal beams supported on only one end. Most cantilever bridges use a pair of continuous spans that extend from opposite sides of the supporting piers to meet at the center of the obstacle the bridge crosses. Cantilever bridges are constructed using much the same materials & techniques as beam bridges. The difference comes in the action of the forces through the bridge.Some cantilever bridges also have a smaller beam connecting the two cantilevers, for extra strength.

The largest cantilever bridge is the 549-metre (1,801 ft) Quebec Bridge in Quebec, Canada.

ArchBridge-diagram.svgArch bridge

Arch bridges have abutments at each end. The weight of the bridge is thrust into the abutments at either side. The earliest known arch bridges were built by the Greeks, and include the Arkadiko Bridge.With the span of 220 metres (720 ft), the Solkan Bridge over the Soča River at Solkan in Slovenia is the second largest stone bridge in the world and the longest railroad stone bridge. It was completed in 1905. Its arch, which was constructed from over 5,000 tonnes (4,900 long tons; 5,500 short tons) of stone blocks in just 18 days, is the second largest stone arch in the world, surpassed only by the Friedensbrücke (Syratalviadukt) in Plauen, and the largest railroad stone arch. The arch of the Friedensbrücke, which was built in the same year, has the span of 90 m (295 ft) and crosses the valley of the Syrabach River. The difference between the two is that the Solkan Bridge was built from stone blocks, whereas the Friedensbrücke was built from a mixture of crushed stone and cement mortar.[17]

The world’s current largest arch bridge is the Chaotianmen Bridge over the Yangtze River with a length of 1,741 m (5,712 ft) and a span of 552 m (1,811 ft). The bridge was opened April 29, 2009 in Chongqing, China.[18]

TiedarchBridge-diagram.svgTied arch bridge

Tied arch bridges have an arch-shaped superstructure, but differ from conventional arch bridges. Instead of transferring the weight of the bridge and traffic loads into thrust forces into the abutments, the ends of the arches are restrained by tension in the bottom chord of the structure. They are also called bowstring arches.
SuspensionBridge-diagram.svgSuspension bridge

Suspension bridges are suspended from cables. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. In modern bridges, the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams. The caissons or cofferdams are implanted deep into the bed of the lake, river or sea. Sub-types include the simple suspension bridge, the stressed ribbon bridge, the underspanned suspension bridge, the suspended-deck suspension bridge, and the self-anchored suspension bridge. There is also what is sometimes called a “semi-suspension” bridge, of which the Ferry Bridge in Burton-upon-Trent is the only one of its kind in Europe.[19]The longest suspension bridge in the world is the 3,909 m (12,825 ft) Akashi Kaikyō Bridge in Japan.[20]
CableStayedBridge-diagram.svgCable-stayed bridge

Cable-stayed bridges, like suspension bridges, are held up by cables. However, in a cable-stayed bridge, less cable is required and the towers holding the cables are proportionately higher.[21] The first known cable-stayed bridge was designed in 1784 by C. T. (or C. J.) Löscher.[22][23]The longest cable-stayed bridge since 2012 is the Russky Bridge in VladivostokRussia.[24]

Fixed or movable bridges

File:Moving a Bloomingdale Trail bridge from Ashland to Western on a Saturday in Chicago.webmhd.webm

Moving a Bloomingdale Trail bridge from Ashland to Western in Chicago.

Most bridges are fixed bridges, meaning they have no moving parts and stay in one place until they fail or are demolished. Temporary bridges, such as Bailey bridges, are designed to be assembled, and taken apart, transported to a different site, and re-used. They are important in military engineering, and are also used to carry traffic while an old bridge is being rebuilt. Movable bridges are designed to move out of the way of boats or other kinds of traffic, which would otherwise be too tall to fit. These are generally electrically powered.

Double-decked bridges

The double-decked George Washington Bridge, connecting New York City to Bergen CountyNew Jersey, US, is the world’s busiest bridge, carrying 102 million vehicles annually.[25][26]

Double-decked (or double-decker) bridges have two levels, such as the George Washington Bridge, connecting New York City to Bergen CountyNew Jersey, US, as the world’s busiest bridge, carrying 102 million vehicles annually;[25][26] truss work between the roadway levels provided stiffness to the roadways and reduced movement of the upper level when the lower level was installed three decades after the upper level. The Tsing Ma Bridge and Kap Shui Mun Bridge in Hong Kong have six lanes on their upper decks, and on their lower decks there are two lanes and a pair of tracks for MTR metro trains. Some double-decked bridges only use one level for street traffic; the Washington Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis reserves its lower level for automobile and light rail traffic and its upper level for pedestrian and bicycle traffic (predominantly students at the University of Minnesota). Likewise, in Toronto, the Prince Edward Viaduct has five lanes of motor traffic, bicycle lanes, and sidewalks on its upper deck; and a pair of tracks for the Bloor–Danforth subway line on its lower deck. The western span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also has two levels.

Robert Stephenson‘s High Level Bridge across the River Tyne in Newcastle upon Tyne, completed in 1849, is an early example of a double-decked bridge. The upper level carries a railway, and the lower level is used for road traffic. Other examples include Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait and Craigavon Bridge in DerryNorthern Ireland. The Oresund Bridge between Copenhagen and Malmö consists of a four-lane highway on the upper level and a pair of railway tracks at the lower level. Tower Bridge in London is different example of a double-decked bridge, with the central section consisting of a low level bascule span and a high level footbridge.

Viaducts

A viaduct is made up of multiple bridges connected into one longer structure. The longest and some of the highest bridges are viaducts, such as the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway and Millau Viaduct.

Three-way bridges

The three-way Tridge

A three-way bridge has three separate spans which meet near the center of the bridge. The bridge appears as a “T” or “Y” when viewed from above. Three-way bridges are extremely rare. The TridgeMargaret Bridge, and Zanesville Y-Bridge are examples.

Bridge types by use

A bridge can be categorized by what it is designed to carry, such as trains, pedestrian or road traffic, a pipeline or waterway for water transport or barge traffic. An aqueduct is a bridge that carries water, resembling a viaduct, which is a bridge that connects points of equal height. A road-rail bridge carries both road and rail traffic. A bridge can carry overhead power lines as does the Storstrøm Bridge.

Some bridges accommodate other purposes, such as the tower of Nový Most Bridge in Bratislava, which features a restaurant, or a bridge-restaurant which is a bridge built to serve as a restaurant. Other suspension bridge towers carry transmission antennas.

Bridges are subject to unplanned uses as well. The areas underneath some bridges have become makeshift shelters and homes to homeless people, and the undertimbers of bridges all around the world are spots of prevalent graffiti. Some bridges attract people attempting suicide, and become known as suicide bridges.

Bridge types by material

The Iron Bridge completed in 1781 was the first cast iron bridge.

Krämerbrücke in ErfurtGermany – with half timbered buildings

Small stone bridge, OthonoiGreece

The materials used to build the structure are also used to categorize bridges. Until the end of the 18th Century, bridges were made out of timber, stone and masonry. Modern bridges are currently built in concrete, steel, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), stainless steel or combinations of those materials. Living bridges have been constructed of live plants such as Ficus elastica tree roots in India[27] and wisteria vines in Japan.[28]

Bridge type Materials used
Cantilever For small footbridges, the cantilevers may be simple beams; however, large cantilever bridges designed to handle road or rail traffic use trusses built from structural steel, or box girders built from prestressed concrete.[29]
Suspension The cables are usually made of steel cables galvanised with zinc, along with most of the bridge, but some bridges are still made with steel reinforced concrete.[30]
Arch Stonebrick and other such materials that are strong in compression and somewhat so in shear.
Beam Beam bridges can use pre-stressed concrete, an inexpensive building material, which is then embedded with rebar. The resulting bridge can resist both compression and tension forces.[31]
Truss The triangular pieces of Truss bridges are manufactured from straight and steel bars, according to the truss bridge designs.[32]

Aesthetics

The World Heritage Site of Stari Most (Old Bridge) gives its name to the city of MostarBosnia and Herzegovina

Most bridges are utilitarian in appearance, but in some cases, the appearance of the bridge can have great importance. Often, this is the case with a large bridge that serves as an entrance to a city, or crosses over a main harbor entrance. These are sometimes known as signature bridges. Designers of bridges in parks and along parkways often place more importance to aesthetics, as well. Examples include the stone-faced bridges along the Taconic State Parkway in New York.

To create a beautiful image, some bridges are built much taller than necessary. This type, often found in east-Asian style gardens, is called a Moon bridge, evoking a rising full moon. Other garden bridges may cross only a dry bed of stream washed pebbles, intended only to convey an impression of a stream. Often in palaces a bridge will be built over an artificial waterway as symbolic of a passage to an important place or state of mind. A set of five bridges cross a sinuous waterway in an important courtyard of the Forbidden City in BeijingChina. The central bridge was reserved exclusively for the use of the Emperor, Empress, and their attendants.

Bridge maintenance

Highway bridge treated with high-frequency impact treatment

Bridge maintenance consisting of a combination of structural health monitoring and testing. This is regulated in country-specific engineer standards and includes e.g. an ongoing monitoring every three to six months, a simple test or inspection every two to three years and a major inspection every six to ten years. In Europe, the cost of maintenance is higher than spending on new bridges. The lifetime of welded steel bridges can be significantly extended by aftertreatment of the weld transitions . This results in a potential high benefit, using existing bridges far beyond the planned lifetime.

Bridge failures

The failure of bridges is of special concern for structural engineers in trying to learn lessons vital to bridge design, construction and maintenance. The failure of bridges first assumed national interest during the Victorian era when many new designs were being built, often using new materials.

In the United States, the National Bridge Inventory tracks the structural evaluations of all bridges, including designations such as “structurally deficient” and “functionally obsolete”.

Bridge monitoring

There are several methods used to monitor the stress on large structures like bridges. The most common method is the use of an accelerometer, which is integrated into the bridge while it is being built. This technology is used for long-term surveillance of the bridge.[33]

Another option for structural-integrity monitoring is “non-contact monitoring”, which uses the Doppler effect (Doppler shift). A laser beam from a Laser Doppler Vibrometer is directed at the point of interest, and the vibration amplitude and frequency are extracted from the Doppler shift of the laser beam frequency due to the motion of the surface.[34] The advantage of this method is that the setup time for the equipment is faster and, unlike an accelerometer, this makes measurements possible on multiple structures in as short a time as possible. Additionally, this method can measure specific points on a bridge that might be difficult to access.

Visual index

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Fowler (1925). The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 102.
  2. Jump up^ Kutz, Myer (2011). Handbook of Transportation Engineering, Volume II: Applications and Technologies, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-161477-1.
  3. Jump up^ DeLony, Eric (1996). “Context for World Heritage Bridges”. Icomos.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2005.
  4. Jump up^ “History of BRIDGES”. Historyworld.net. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  5. Jump up^ “Lessons from Roman Cement and Concrete”. Pubs.asce.org. Archived from the original on February 10, 2005. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  6. Jump up^ Dikshitar, V. R. R. Dikshitar (1993). The Mauryan Polity, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 332 ISBN 81-208-1023-6.
  7. Jump up to:a b Dutt, Romesh Chunder (2000). A History of Civilisation in Ancient India: Vol II, Routledge, p. 46, ISBN 0-415-23188-4.
  8. Jump up^ “suspension bridge” in Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  9. Jump up^ Nath, R. (1982). History of Mughal Architecture, Abhinav Publications, p. 213, ISBN 81-7017-159-8.
  10. Jump up^ “Iron Bridge”Engineering Timelines. Engineering Timelines. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  11. Jump up^ Sapp, Mark E. (February 22, 2008). “Welding Timeline 1900–1950”. WeldingHistory.org. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  12. Jump up^ “Beam bridges”. Design Technology. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2008.
  13. Jump up^ Structural Beam Deflection Stress Bending Equations / Calculation Supported on Both Ends Uniform Loading Archived January 22, 2013, at Archive.is. Engineers Edge. Retrieved on April 23, 2013.
  14. Jump up^ “A big prefabricated bridge”. Life40 (22): 53–60. May 28, 1956.
  15. Jump up^ “ASCE | Civil What? | Bridges”www.asceville.orgArchived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  16. Jump up^ Naito, Clay; Sause, Richard; Hodgson, Ian; Pessiki, Stephen; Macioce, Thomas (2010). “Forensic Examination of a Noncomposite Adjacent Precast Prestressed Concrete Box Beam Bridge”Journal of Bridge Engineering15 (4): 408–418. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000110.
  17. Jump up^ Gorazd Humar (September 2001). “World Famous Arch Bridges in Slovenia”. In Charles Abdunur. Arch’01: troisième Conférence internationale sur les ponts en arc Paris: (in English and French). Paris: Presses des Ponts. pp. 121–124. ISBN 2-85978-347-4Archived from the original on July 30, 2016.
  18. Jump up^ “Longest bridge, steel arch bridge”. Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  19. Jump up^ A.O.P. Guide to Burton-on-Trent, 1911, p.13
  20. Jump up^ Sigmund, Pete (February 7, 2007). “The Mighty Mac: A Sublime Engineering Feat”. Construction Equipment Guide. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved May 14,2008.
  21. Jump up^ Johnson, Andy. “Cable Stay vs Suspension Bridges”. U.S. Department of Energy. Archivedfrom the original on May 18, 2008.
  22. Jump up^ Earliest cable-stayed bridge Archived November 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. Jump up^ Earliest cable-stayed bridge Archived February 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. Jump up^ Elder, Miriam (July 2, 2012). “Russian city of Vladivostok unveils record-breaking suspension bridge”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 20, 2016. Retrieved February 3,2016.
  25. Jump up to:a b “Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge”. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  26. Jump up to:a b Bod Woodruff; Lana Zak & Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). “GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World’s Busiest Bridge”. ABC News. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  27. Jump up^ “How are Living Root Bridges Made?”The Living Root Bridge Project. May 5, 2017. Archivedfrom the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  28. Jump up^ “The Vine Bridges of Iya Valley”Atlas ObscuraArchived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  29. Jump up^ “Cantilever”Bridges of DublinArchived from the original on October 29, 2014.
  30. Jump up^ “Suspension Bridges”Made HowArchived from the original on January 2, 2015.
  31. Jump up^ “Beam Bridges”PBSArchived from the original on January 6, 2015.
  32. Jump up^ K, Aggeliki; Stonecypher, Lamar. “Truss Bridge Designs”Bright Hub EngineeringArchivedfrom the original on February 19, 2015.
  33. Jump up^ “The new Minnesota smart bridge” (PDF). mnme.comArchived (PDF) from the original on August 23, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  34. Jump up^ “Basic Principles of Vibrometry”polytec.comArchived from the original on June 10, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.

Further reading

  • Brown, David J. Bridges: Three Thousand Years of Defying Nature. Richmond Hill, Ont: Firefly Books, 2005. ISBN 1-55407-099-6.
  • Sandak, Cass R. Bridges. An Easy-read modern wonders book. New York: F. Watts, 1983. ISBN 0-531-04624-9.
  • Whitney, Charles S. Bridges of the World: Their Design and Construction. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-486-42995-4 (Unabridged republication of Bridges : a study in their art, science, and evolution. 1929.)

External links

Island

Little island in bog of Cenu (Cenu tīrelis) at Riga in Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, summer of 2017

Atafu atoll in Tokelau

A small Fijian island
The British Isles are a large group of islands. The main islands are Great Britain and Ireland.
A small island in Lower Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks in the U.S.
Bangchuidao Island is an islet composed mostly of rock, in DalianLiaoning Province, China.
The islands of Fernando de NoronhaBrazil, are the visible parts of submerged mountains.
A subterranean isle in Cross Cave
Manhattan, U.S. is home to over 1.6 million people.
Kansai Airport is built on an artificial island in Japan.

An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.[2] Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called isletsskerriescays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines, for example.

Little island in bog of Cenu (Cenu tīrelis) at Riga in Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, summer of 2017
A little island in the bog of Cenas (Cenas tīrelis) near Riga in Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, summer of 2017

An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain “island” in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are strictly tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canalor Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.

There are two main types of islands in the sea: continental and oceanic. There are also artificial islands.

Sala latviešu valodā > šeit >

Etymology

The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland (from ig or ieg, similarly meaning ‘island’ when used independently, and -land carrying its contemporary meaning; cf. Dutch eiland (“island”), German Eiland (“small island”)). However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula.[3] Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua (water).[4]

Difference between islands and continents

Greenland is the world’s largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world’s smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size which distinguishes islands from continents,[5] or from islets.[6] There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology. Continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earth’s mantleOceanic crust is also part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, so it floats low on the mantle. Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust (e.g. volcanic islands) or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere (e.g. Greenland). This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere and tectonic plate.

Types of islands

Continental islands

Continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent.[7] Examples are BorneoJavaSumatraSakhalinTaiwan and Hainan off AsiaNew GuineaTasmania, and Kangaroo Island off AustraliaGreat BritainIreland, and Sicily off EuropeGreenlandNewfoundlandLong Island, and Sable Island off North America; and BarbadosFalklands and Trinidad off South America.

A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen IslandsNew CaledoniaNew Zealand, and some of the Seychelles.

Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. This includes:

  • barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves
  • fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived.

Islets are very small islands.

Oceanic islands

Oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.[8] The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific.

One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands.

Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples: Iceland, which is the world’s second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic.

A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is eventually “drowned” by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts. Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago; its older, northerly trend is the Line Islands. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of TuvaluTristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hot spot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, which was formed in 1963.

An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island. The reef rises to the surface of the water and forms a new island. Atolls are typically ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands in the Pacific and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.

Tropical islands

Approximately 45,000 tropical islands with an area of at least 5 hectares (12 acres) exist.[9] Examples formed from coral reefs include MaldivesTongaSamoaNauru, and Polynesia.[9] Granite islands include Seychelles and Tioman and volcanic islands such as Saint Helena.

The socio-economic diversity of tropical islands ranges from the Stone Age societies in the interior of MadagascarBorneo, and Papua New Guinea to the high-tech lifestyles of the city-islands of Singapore and Hong Kong.[10]

International tourism is a significant factor in the economy of many tropical islands including Seychelles, Sri LankaMauritiusRéunionHawaii, and the Maldives.

Artificial islands

Almost all of the Earth’s islands are natural and have been formed by tectonic forces or volcanic eruptions. However, artificial (man-made) islands also exist, such as the island in Osaka Bay off the Japanese island of Honshu, on which Kansai International Airport is located. Artificial islands can be built using natural materials (e.g., earth, rock, or sand) or artificial ones (e.g., concrete slabs or recycled waste).[11][12] Sometimes natural islands are artificially enlarged, such as Vasilyevsky Island in the Russian city of St. Petersburg, which had its western shore extended westward by some 0.5 km in the construction of the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg.[13]

Artificial islands are sometimes built on pre-existing “low-tide elevation”, a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Legally it is not an island and has no territorial sea of its own.[14]

Island superlatives

See also

References

Notes

  1. Jump up^ “Hawaii : Image of the Day”Archived from the original on January 10, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  2. Jump up^ “Webster’s Dictionary-Island”Archived from the original on October 9, 2011.
  3. Jump up^ “Island”Dictionary.comArchived from the original on March 7, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
  4. Jump up^ Ringe, Donald A. (2006). A Linguistic History of English: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Oxford University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-19-928413-X.
  5. Jump up^ Brown, Mike. How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It ComingArchived April 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. New York: Random House Digital, 2010. ISBN 0-385-53108-7
  6. Jump up^ Royle, Stephen A. A Geography of Islands: Small Island Insularity Archived September 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. Psychology Press, 2001. pp. 7–11 ISBN 1-85728-865-3
  7. Jump up^ “Island (geography)”Encyclopædia BritannicaArchivedfrom the original on October 8, 2014. Retrieved September 16,2014.
  8. Jump up^ Lomolino, Mark V. (editor); (et al.) (2004) Foundations of Biogeography: Classic Papers with CommentariesArchived April 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. University of Chicago Press. p. 316. ISBN 0226492362
  9. Jump up to:a b Austrian Academy of Sciences. “The Tropical Islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans”. doi:10.1553/3-7001-2738-3.
  10. Jump up^ Arnberger, Hertha, Erik (2011). The Tropical Islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. ISBN 978-3700127383.
  11. Jump up^ “Building Artificial Islands That Rise With the Sea”Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  12. Jump up^ “What Makes an Island? Land Reclamation and the South China Sea Arbitration | Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative”. July 15, 2015. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  13. Jump up^ “Conception of development of the artificial lands of Vasilievsky island”. Archived from the original on September 25, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  14. Jump up^ United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Article 13Archived from the original on September 2, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017.

External links

Rīgas pasažieru osta

Tallink prāmis Isabelle Rīgas Pasažieru ostā. Skats no Balasta dambja Ķīpsalā, 2018. gada 3. februāra vakarā. Foto: Atis Luguzs

Rīgas Pasažieru osta (oficiālais nosaukums Rīgas Pasažieru termināls) ir pasažieru osta Latvijas galvaspilsētā Rīgā. Pasažieru ostas adrese ir Eksporta iela 3a.

Koordinātas56°57′33″N 24°05′41″E (karte)

Rīgas Pasažieru termināla ēka

Rīgas Pasažieru termināla piestātne

Rīgas Pasažieru ostas Vēsture

Kā atsevišķa, tikai pasažieru kuģiem, prāmjiem un kruīzu kuģiem domāta piestātne ar īpaši pasažieru uzņemšanai domātu ēku uzcelta 1965. gadā (arhitekti M.Ģelzis, V.Savisko, konstruktors A.Briedis). Sākotnējais nosaukums bija “Jūras pasažieru stacija”.

No 1995. gada līdz 2000. gadam Rīgas pasažieru ostas nosaukums bija A/S “Rīgas pasažieru osta”, un tās funkcijas bija: pasažieru kuģu un prāmju apkalpošana, ostas un citi pakalpojumi, stividorpakalpojumi, kuģu kravu aģentēšana, kravu deklarēšana, sabiedriskās ēdināšanas pakalpojumi, vairumtirdzniecības un mazumtirdzniecības, starpniecības un noliktavu pakalpojumu sniegšana. Pēc tam uzņēmējdarbību sāka veikt SIA Rīgas pasažieru termināls, kas šim nolūkam iznomāja piestātni un tās iekārtas no A/S Rīgas brīvosta, tāpēc Rīgas pasažieru ostas oficiālais nosaukums ir Rīgas Pasažieru termināls.

2006. gadā prāmju satiksmi starp Rīgu un Stokholmu sāka kompānija Tallink.

Costa Pacifica heads to the Baltic Sea on river Daugava at Riga, Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, 2017-Aug-13
2017. gada 13. augusta vakarā Rīgas Pasažieru ostu atstāj kruīza kuģis Costa Pacifica. Foto: Atis Luguzs

Pasažieru ostas Statistika

Rīgas Pasažieru ostas termināls. 2008. gada augusts.

Kopš 2006. gada Rīgas pasažieru ostas kopējais pārvadāto pasažieru skaits strauji pieauga. Galvenokārt tas bija saistīts ar Igaunijas kompānijas “Tallink” ienākšanu Rīgas ostā.

Gads Pasažieri
1990 38 100
1991 21 900
1992 84 000
1993 146 300
1994 80 200
1995 98 200
1996 33 500
1997 60 900
1998 100 800
1999 75 100
Gads Pasažieri
2000 60 600
2001 51 100
2002 156 800
2003 278 000
2004 229 400
2005 195 200
2006 246 900
2007 441 914
2008 503 594
2009 691 200
Gads Pasažieri
2010 764 000
2011 839 700[1]
2012 814 755
2013 837 665
2014 737 865
2015 526 243
2016 581 577[2]
2017
2018
2019

Jūras maršruti no Rīgas Pasažieru ostas

Tallink prāmis Isabelle Rīgas Pasažieru ostā. Skats no Balasta dambja Ķīpsalā, 2018. gada 3. februāra vakarā. Foto: Atis Luguzs
Tallink prāmis Isabelle Rīgas Pasažieru ostā. Skats pāri Daugavai no Balasta dambja Ķīpsalā, 2018. gada 3. februāra vakarā. Foto: Atis Luguzs

Atsauces

  • A/s “Rīgas pasažieru osta” dibināšanas un likvidācijas dokumentācija Latvijas Valsts arhīvā – 2300. fonds, dokumentu krājums Nr 12.023
  1. Pārlēkt uz augšu [1], csb.gov.lv 2012
  2. Pārlēkt uz augšu [2], csb.gov.lv

Ārējās saites

Tallink kuģniecība

Tallink prāmis Isabelle Rīgas Pasažieru ostā. Skats no Balasta dambja Ķīpsalā, 2018. gada 3. februāra vakarā. Foto: Atis Luguzs
AS Tallink Grupp
Tips Akciju sabiedrība
Darbības joma transports
Dibināts 1989. gads
Galvenais birojs TallinaKarogs: Igaunija Igaunija
Pakalpojumi jūras pārvadājumi
Mājaslapa www.tallink.com

Tallink (oficiālais nosaukums AS Tallink Grupp) ir Igaunijas uzņēmumu grupa, kas nodarbojas ar kuģniecību Baltijas jūrāTallink ir otrs lielākais Igaunijas uzņēmums pēc apgrozījuma (pēc Ericsson Eesti).[1] Dibināts 1989. gadā. Galvenais birojs atrodas Tallinā.

Tallink pieder 16 kuģu flote, kas pārvadā pasažierus un kravas starp Igauniju, LatvijuSomiju un Zviedriju.

Uzņēmumam ir piecas viesnīcas Tallinā un Rīgā. Tam ir meitas uzņēmums AS Tallink Takso, kas veic taksometra pakalpojumus.

AS Tallink Grupp akcijas tiek kotētas NASDAQ Tallinn biržā. Lielākie akcionāri (2017. gada martā):[2] AS Infortar (38 %), Baltic Cruises Holding L.P. (18 %), Baltic Cruises Investment L.P. (6 %), ING Luxemburg S.A. AIF Account (4 %), ING Luxembourg Client Account(3 %).

Tallink vēsture

Pirmais kuģniecības kuģis Tallink Tallinas ostā 1994. gadā

Tallink pirmsākumi meklējami 1965. gadā, kad Igaunijas kuģniecība sāka regulāru satiksmi starp Tallinu un Helsinkiem.

1989. gada maijā Igaunijas kuģniecība kopā ar Somijas Palkkiyhtymä Oy dibināja kopuzņēmumu Laevandusühisettevõte Tallink. Decembrī tika nopirkts prāmis Scandinavian Sky, kurš pārdēvēts par Tallink un 1990. gada janvārī sāka kursēt starp Tallinu un Helsinkiem. Vēlāk tam pievienojās kuģis Transestonia. 1990. gadā uzņēmums pārdēvēts par Tallink. 1991. gadā uz līgumreisu pamata no mātes uzņēmuma saņemts prāmis Georg Ots. 1990. gadu sākumā pasažieru skaits strauji auga, un no Irish Ferries tika iznomāts Saint Patrick II.

1993. gadā Palkkiyhtymä piederošās Tallink kapitāldaļas pārdeva Igaunijas kuģniecībai.

2006. gadā Tallink sāka regulāru satiksmi starp Rīgu un Stokholmu. 2015. gada februārī kuģu būvētavā Meyer Turku pasūtīta jauna ātrgaitas ar sašķidrināto dabasgāzi darbināma prāmja būvniecība. Lai iegūtu līdzekļus aizdevumu apmaksai, 2015. gada novembrī nolemts prāmi Superstar pārdot kuģniecībai Medinvest SpA (Corsica Ferries Group). Īpašnieku maiņa notiks decembrī. Līdz līdz 2017. gada sākumam prāmi, kas kursē līnijā Tallina—Helsinki, Tallink nomās.[3]

Tallink Flote

Tallink prāmis Isabelle Rīgas Pasažieru ostā. Skats no Balasta dambja Ķīpsalā, 2018. gada 3. februāra vakarā. Foto: Atis Luguzs
Tallink prāmis Isabelle Rīgas Pasažieru ostā. Skats pāri Daugavai no Balasta dambja Ķīpsalā, 2018. gada 3. februāra vakarā. Foto: Atis Luguzs

Tallink pasažieru prāmji

Kuģis Tips Uzbūvēts Tallink
sastāvā
Līnija Kravnesība Karogs Piezīmes
Baltic Queen Kruīza prāmis 2009 2009 TallinaStokholma 48 900 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija Līdz 11.12.2016 kursēja līnijā TallinaHelsinki.
Romantika Kruīza prāmis 2002 2002 RīgaStokholma

Skatīt: Rīgas Pasažieru osta

39 864 Karogs: Latvija Latvija Pirmais jaunuzbūvētais Tallink kuģis. No 2002. — 2009. un no 2015. — 2016. gadam kuģojis zem Igaunijas karoga līnijā TallinaMariehamnaStokholma. No 2009. — 2015. gadam, kā arī no 2016. gada decembra kuģo zem Latvijas karoga līnijā Rīga — Stokholma.
Star Ātrais Ro-Pax 2007 2007 TallinaHelsinki 36 249 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija
Victoria I Kruīza prāmis 2004 2004 TallinaMariehamnaStokholma 40 975 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija
Isabelle Kruīza prāmis 1989 2013 RīgaStokholma

Skatīt: Rīgas Pasažieru osta

34 937 Karogs: Latvija Latvija Nopirkts no konkurenta Viking Line; nomainīja Silja Festival. 2017. gada februārī pārkrāsots baltā krāsā.
Superstar Kruīza prāmis 2008 2008 TallinaHelsinki 34 937 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija
Megastar Kruīza prāmis 2015 — 2017 2017 TallinaHelsinki 34 937 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija

Silja Line pasažieru prāmji

Kuģis Tips Uzbūvēts Silja Line
sastāvā
Līnija Kravnesība Karogs Piezīmes
Silja Serenade Kruīza prāmis 1990 1990 HelsinkiMariehamnaStokholma 58 376 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija
Silja Symphony Kruīza prāmis 1991 1991 Helsinki—Mariehamna—Stokholma 58 377 Karogs: Zviedrija Zviedrija
Baltic Princess Kruīza prāmis 2008 2013 TurkuMariehamna/Longnesa—Stokholma 48 300 Karogs: Somija Somija Saņemts no Tallink, nomainot Silja Europa.
Galaxy Kruīza prāmis 2006 2008 Turku—Mariehamna/Longnesa—Stokholma 48 915 Karogs: Zviedrija Zviedrija Saņemts no Tallink, nomainot Silja Festival.
Silja Europa Kruīza prāmis 1993 1993 Tallina—Helsinki 59 914 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija No 2014. gada līdz 2016. gada sākumam bija iznomāts AustrālijasBridgeman Servicesprojektam Gorgon LNG kā darbinieku apmešanas vieta. Līdz 2016. gadam atjaunotas pasažieru telpas.

Kravas kuģi

Kuģis Tips Uzbūvēts Tallink
sastāvā
Līnija Kravnesība Karogs Piezīmes
Regal Star Ro-Ro 1999 2004 PaldiskiKapelskāra 15 281 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija
Sea Wind Ro-Ro 1972 1989 Tallina—Vuosāri 15 587 Karogs: Igaunija Igaunija

Iznomāti citiem operatoriem

Kuģis Tips Uzbūvēts Tallink
īpašumā
Līnija Kravnesība Karogs Piezīmes
Superfast VIII Ātrais Ro-Pax 2001 2006 BelfāstaKērnraiena 30 285 Karogs: Apvienotā Karaliste Apvienotā Karaliste Kopš 2011. gada iznomāts Zviedrijas Stena Line (līdz 2019. gadam)
Superfast VII Ātrais Ro-Pax 2001 2006 Belfāsta—Kērnraiena 30 285 Karogs: Apvienotā Karaliste Apvienotā Karaliste Kopš 2011. gada iznomāts Stena Line (līdz 2019. gadam)
Atlantic Vision(Superfast IX) Ātrais Ro-Pax 2002 2006 Portobasko—Nortsidneja 30 285 Karogs: Kanāda Kanāda Kopš 2008. gada iznomāts Kanādas Marine Atlantic

Nomāti no citiem operatoriem

Kuģis Tips Uzbūvēts Nomas periods Līnija Kravnesība Īpašnieks Piezīmes
Superstar Ātrais Ro-Pax 2008 2015—2017 Tallina—Helsinki 36 400 MedinvestKarogs: Francija Francija Agrāk bijis Tallinkīpašumā.

Agrāk piederējušie kuģi

Nepilnīgs uzskaitījums

Kuģis Tips Uzbūvēts Tallink
īpašumā/sastāvā
Pēdējā līnija Tallink sastāvā Kravnesība Tagadējais īpašnieks Pieraksta osta Piezīmes
Vana Tallinn Kruīza prāmis 1976 1994—2011 RīgaStokholma 10 002 Nav Nav 2011. gadā pārdots Allferries; nosaukums mainīts uz Adriatica Queen. 2014. gadā sagriezts metāllūžņos. Pēdējā zināmā pieraksta osta: Karogs: Togo Togo
Silja Festival Kruīza prāmis 1986 2006—2015 RīgaStokholma 33 818 Corsica Ferries Sardinia Ferries Karogs: Itālija Itālija DženovaKarogs: Itālija Itālija Pilnībā renovēts 2015. gadā; mainīts nosaukums uz Mega Andrea
Regina Baltica Kruīza prāmis 1980 2002—2015 RīgaStokholma 18 345 Skandināvijasvaldības RīgaKarogs: Latvija Latvija[Dati no 2015. gada oktobra] Kalpo kā peldošā viesnīca ŠeringhamāApvienotajā Karalsitē
Superstar Ātrais Ro-Pax 2008 2008—2015 ; 2015—2017 TallinaHelsinki 36 400 MedinvestKarogs: Francija Francija 2015. gadā pārdots Medinvest, bet nomāts no 2015. līdz 2017. gada sākumam un uz laiku atkal atgriezies Tallinksastāvā[3]

Tallink Viesnīcas

Tallink pieder vairākas viesnīcas:

  • Tallink City Hotel, Tallina
  • Tallink Spa & Conference Hotel, Tallina, atvērts 2007. gada martā
  • Pirita SPA Hotel, Tallina
  • Tallink Express Hotel, Tallina
  • Tallink Hotel Riga, Rīga, atvērts 2010. gada aprīlī

Atsauces

Ārējās saites

Costa Pacifica cruise ship

Costa Pacifica heads to the Baltic Sea on river Daugava at Riga, Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, 2017-Aug-13
Costa Pacifica heads to the Baltic Sea on river Daugava at Riga, Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, 2017-Aug-13
Costa Pacifica heads to the Baltic Sea on river Daugava at Riga, Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, 2017-Aug-13
Costa Pacifica
History
Name: Costa Pacifica
Owner: Carnival Corporation & plc
Operator: Costa Crociere
Port of registry:  ItalyGenoa
Ordered: 14 December 2005
Builder:
Cost: 500 million
Yard number: 6148
Launched: 30 June 2008
Christened: 5 June 2009
Acquired: 29 May 2009
In service: 5 June 2009[1]
Identification:
Status: In service
Notes: [2][3]
General characteristics
Class and type: Concordia-class cruise ship
Tonnage:
  • 114,500 GT
  • 87,300 NT
Length: 290.2 m (952 ft)
Beam: 36 m (118 ft)
Draught: 8.2 m (27 ft)
Depth: 19.77 m (64.9 ft)
Decks:
  • 14 passenger decks
  • 17 total
Deck clearance: 11.57 m (38.0 ft)
Installed power: 6 × Wärtsilä 12V46, 12,600 kW each[4]
Propulsion: Diesel-electric
Speed:
  • 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h; 24.7 mph) (cruise)
  • 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph) (maximum)
Capacity: 3,780 passengers
Crew: 1,100
Notes: [3][5]

Costa Pacifica is a Concordia-class cruise ship for Costa Crociere. She was handed over to Costa Crociere on 29 May 2009.[2] Her sister ships, Costa Concordia and Costa Serena, were launched in 2006 and in 2007, with Costa Favolosa and Costa Fascinosa launched in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Onboard facilities include the Samsara Spa and PlayStation World, an area boasting PS3 consoles, and the first recording studio at sea. The ship was inaugurated in a dual christening ceremony, along with Costa Luminosa on 5 June 2009.

Concept and construction

Construction of Costa Pacifica.

Costa Pacifica is the third ship of the Concordia-class, preceded by sister ships Costa Concordia and Costa Serena and was followed by Costa Favolosa and Costa Fascinosa on 2011 and 2012, all part of the expansion program of Costa which entailed an investment of 2.4 billion Euro, and is currently the largest fleet expansion program in the world.

Pacifica was ordered on 14 December 2005, by Carnival Corporation, the parent company of Costa Crociere.[6] The order was four ships, which includes; Carnival Dream, for Carnival Cruise LinesNieuw Amsterdam for Holland America Line; and Ruby Princess for Princess Cruises, at a total cost of US$3 billion.[6]

The bow section of Costa Pacifica was built at the Fincantieri Palermo shipyard and was launched on 24 July 2007. The section was then towed to Fincantieri’s Sestri Ponente in August 2007 for further work, which also marked the announcement of the ships name.[7] Pacifica was launched at Fincantieri’s Sestri Ponente shipyard on 30 June 2008.[8] She returned to Sestri Ponente from her sea trials on 30 March 2009, for the fitting-out process.[9] Almost 3,000 workers helped in the construction of Costa Pacifica.[2]

She was later christened at GenoaItaly on June 5, 2009, in a dual christening ceremony, together with Costa Luminosa.[10] The dual christening ceremony was the world’s first which set a Guinness World Record in the new category “Most ships inaugurated in one day by one company”.

Amenities of Costa Pacifica

Costa Pacifica has 1,504 staterooms; 521 with private balconies and 91 spa staterooms; 58 suites with private balconies and 12 spa suites. There are five onboard restaurants, which include the reservations-only Club Blue Moon and Samsara Restaurant. There are 13 bars, including a Cognac & cigar bar and a coffee and chocolate Bar. Four swimming pools, two with retractable covers, one with Toboga, and four jacuzzis. The onboard Samsara spa, a two-level, 6,000 m2 (65,000 sq ft) wellness facility with gym, a thalassotherapy pool, treatment rooms, sauna, Turkish bath and a solarium. A poolside screen is located in the pool deck. Costa Pacifica also has a three-level theater, a Grand Prix simulator, a recording studio and a PlayStation World area, where PS3 consoles are available. Costa Pacifica is the first cruise ship to have an onboard recording studio, fitted with sophisticated equipment.[11][12]

Operation history

The maiden voyage of Costa Pacifica was on June 6, 2009, an eight-day cruise and departed in Savona, with a special 48-hour layover in Palma de MallorcaSpain.[12]

In the entire 2009 summer season, Costa Pacifica offered seven day cruises in the Western Mediterranean, with calls at RomeSavonaMarseillesBarcelonaPalmaTunisMalta and Palermo.[12]

During the 2009-2010 winter season, Costa Pacifica departed from Rome and Savona, offering 10- and 11-day cruises in EgyptIsrael and Turkey. In Summer 2010, she offered seven day cruises in the Western Mediterranean, with calls at Rome, Savona, Barcelona, Palma, Tunis, Malta and Catania.[12]

Incidents and accidents

On December 11, 2012 Costa Pacifica struck a piling while maneuvering into dock at the Port of MarseilleFrance. The cause of the damage is blamed on heavy wind, an 8 m (26 ft) gash was left on her hull above the waterline. Her itinerary was not delayed.[13]

On May 5, 2017 at 7:15 AM Costa Pacifica has suffered from an electrical malfunction and has been stuck in dock at Cagliari Port, in Sardinia, Italy. The cause of the damage was blamed on a primary electrical generator. As no spare parts were available on time, the ship was unable to sail out to Civitavecchia leaving several passengers without booked flight connections.

Gallery of Costa Pacifica

Costa Pacifica heads to the Baltic Sea on river Daugava at Riga, Latvia. Photo: Atis Luguzs, 2017-Aug-13

Costa Pacifica in Savona
Costa Pacifica anchored in Kiel, Germany
Costa Pacifica in Klaipėda
Costa Pacifica departing Tallinn
Costa Pacifica in harbour at Malaga

References for cruise ship Costa Pacifica

  1. Jump up^ Costa Pacifica Fast Facts
  2. Jump up to:a b c “Today Marks the Delivery Costa Pacifica the Ship of Music” (Press release). Fincantieri. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  3. Jump up to:a b “Advanced Masterdata for the Vessel Carnival PacificaVesselTracker. 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  4. Jump up^ Costa’s new flagship fitted with powerful engines Cruise Industry News. 14 December 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2010
  5. Jump up^ “Costa Pacifica: The “Greatest Hits” of the Costa fleet”Cruise Industry News. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February2012.
  6. Jump up to:a b “Agreement With Carnival for Six–Ship Deal Worth Over 3 Billion Dollars” (Press release). Fincantieri. 14 December 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  7. Jump up^ “First section of the new “Costa Pacifica” launched in Palermo”Cruise Industry News. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  8. Jump up^ Costa & Fincantieri: 2 ships launched simultaneouslyCruise Industry News. 30 June 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2010
  9. Jump up^ Costa Luminosa and Pacifica getting ready for their record-breaking debut Cruise Industry News. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2010
  10. Jump up^ Costa sails into Guinness World Records with world’s-first joint ship christening Cruise Industry News. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2010
  11. Jump up^ Costa Pacifica: Relax in Cruise Costa Cruises. Retrieved 8 May 2010
  12. Jump up to:a b c d Costa Pacifica delivered Cruise Industry News. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2010
  13. Jump up^ Jim Walker (11 December 2012). “Costa Pacifica Strikes Pier in Marseille, France”Cruise Law News. Retrieved 20 December 2012.

External links

Riga

Vecrīgas siluets, panorāma no Balasta dambja Ķipsalā. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 3.feb.

Riga (/ˈrɡə/LatvianRīgapronounced [ˈriːɡa] (About this sound listen)) is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 641,481 inhabitants (2016),[3] it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia’s population and one tenth of the three Baltic states’ combined population.[6] The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava. Riga’s territory covers 307.17 square kilometres (118.60 square miles) and lies between one and ten metres (3 feet 3 inches and 32 feet 10 inches) above sea level,[7] on a flat and sandy plain.[7]Lasīt par Rīgu latviešu valodā > šeit >

Riga
Rīga
City
From top, left to right: the Freedom Monument, the Riga City Council building, the House of the Blackheads, Līvu Square, and the Latvian National Opera

From top, left to right: the Freedom Monument, the Riga City Council building, the House of the Blackheads, Līvu Square, and the Latvian National Opera
Flag of Riga
Flag
Coat of arms of Riga
Coat of arms
Location of Riga within Latvia
Location of Riga within Latvia
Coordinates: 56°56′56″N 24°6′23″ECoordinates56°56′56″N 24°6′23″E
Country  Latvia
Government[1]
 • Type City council
 • Mayor Nils Ušakovs
Area (2002)[2]
 • City 324 km2 (125 sq mi)
 • Land 275.5 km2 (106.4 sq mi)
 • Water 48.50 km2 (18.73 sq mi)  15.8%
 • Metro 10,133 km2 (3,912 sq mi)
Population (2017)[3]
 • City 641,423
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,018,295 (Riga Planning Region)
 • Metro density 101.4/km2 (263/sq mi)
 • Demonym Rīdzinieki
Ethnicity (2016)[4]
 • Latvians 46.2%
 • Russians 37.7%
 • Belarusians 3.9%
 • Ukrainians 3.5%
 • Poles 1.8%
 • Lithuanians 0.8%
 • Romanies 0.1%
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Calling codes 66 and 67
GDP(nominal) 2012
 – Total €12($15) billion[5]
 – Per capita €18,000($21,000)
Website www.riga.lv
Historic Centre of Riga
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Old Town of Riga

The old town of Riga – Vecrīga
Criteria Cultural: i, ii
Reference 852
Inscription 1997 (21st Session)
Area 438.3 ha
Buffer zone 1,574.2 ha

Riga was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga’s historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture.[8]Riga was the European Capital of Culture during 2014, along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men’s World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women’s Curling Championship. It is home to the European Union‘s office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC).

In 2016, Riga received 2.3 million visitors.[9] It is served by Riga International Airport, the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities,[10] the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC)[11] and Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU).[12]

Origin of the name Riga

One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River.[13][14] The other is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West,[15] as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the “j” becoming a “g” in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt (1589),[16][17] and German historian Dionysius Fabricius (1610) confirms the origin of Riga from rija.[16][18] Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava.[19]

History of Riga

Historical affiliations
 Terra Mariana (condominium of Archbishops of Riga and Livonian Order) 1201–1561
 Imperial Free City 1561–1582
 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1629
 Swedish Empire 1629–1721
 Russian Empire 1721–1917
 German Empire 1917–1918
Latvia Republic of Latvia 1918–1940
 Soviet Union 1940–1941
 Nazi Germany 1941–1944
Soviet UnionLatvian Soviet Socialist Republic Soviet Union 1944–1991Latvia Republic of Latvia 1991–present

Founding of Riga

The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings’ Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.[16] A sheltered natural harbour 15 km (9.3 mi) upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today’s Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century.[16] It was settled by the Livs, an ancient Finnic tribe.[13]

The building of the Brotherhood of Blackheads is one of the most iconic buildings of Old Riga (Vecrīga)

Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages.[16] Riga’s inhabitants occupied themselves mainly with fishing, animal husbandry, and trading, later developing crafts (in bone, wood, amber, and iron).[16]

The Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus (ancient port), and describes dwellings and warehouses used to store mostly corn, flax, and hides.[16] German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158.

Along with German traders also arrived the monk Meinhard of Segeberg[15] to convert the Livonian pagans to ChristianityCatholic and Orthodox Christianity had already arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, and many Latvians baptised.[15][16] Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, and established his bishopric there.[15] The Livs, however, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, having failed his mission.[20] In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders[20] and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization.[15][16] Berthold was killed soon afterwards and his forces defeated.[20]

The Church mobilised to avenge. Pope Innocent III issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians.[20] Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of UthledePrince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200[16][20] with 23 ships[21] and 500 Westphalian crusaders.[22] In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, extorting agreement to do so from the elders of Riga by force.[16]

Under Bishop Albert

The year 1201 also marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina.[23] To defend territory[24] and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles and merchants.[23]

Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started on fortification of the town.[23][25] Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a fief[26] and principality of the Holy Roman Empire.[16] To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third.[27] Until then, it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and then return home.[27]

Albert had ensured Riga’s commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga.[27] In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage,[16] and Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom.[28] Riga was not yet secure as an alliance of tribes failed to take Riga.[27] In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage.[23] Polotsk conceded Kukenois (Koknese) and Jersika to Albert, also ending the Livs’ tribute to Polotsk.[29]

Riga’s merchant citizenry chafed and sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga[24] and adopted a city constitution.[30]

That same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia.[31] Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not reach Riga. The Danes landed in Livonia, built a fortress at Reval (Tallinn) and set about conquering Estonian and Livonian lands. The Germans attempted, but failed, to assassinate Valdemar.[32] Albert was able to reach an accommodation with them a year later, however and, in 1222, Valdemar returned all Livonian lands and possessions to Albert’s control.[33]

Albert’s difficulties with Riga’s citizenry continued; with papal intervention, a settlement was reached in 1225 whereby they no longer had to pay tax to the Bishop of Riga,[34] and Riga’s citizens acquired the right to elect their magistrates and town councillors.[34] In 1226, Albert consecrated the Dom Cathedral,[16] built St. James’s Church,[16] (now a cathedral) and founded a parochial school at the Church of St. George.[15]

In 1227, Albert conquered Oesel[35] and the city of Riga concluded a treaty with the Principality of Smolensk giving Polotsk to Riga.[36]

Albert died in January 1229.[37] He failed in his aspiration to be anointed archbishop[26] but the German hegemony he established over the Baltic would last for seven centuries.[27]

Riga in the 16th century

Riga and Hanseatic League

In 1282, Riga became a member of the Hanseatic League. The Hansa was instrumental in giving Riga economic and political stability, thus providing the city with a strong foundation which endured the political conflagrations that were to come, down to modern times.

Riga in 1650. Drawing by Johann Christoph Brotze

Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Swedish and Russian Empires

As the influence of the Hanseatic League waned, Riga became the object of foreign military, political, religious and economic aspirations. Riga accepted the Reformation in 1522, ending the power of the archbishops. In 1524, iconoclasts targeted a statue of the Virgin Mary in the Cathedral to make a statement against religious icons. It was accused of being a witch, and given a trial by water in the Daugava River. The statue floated, so it was denounced as a witch and burnt at Kubsberg.[38] With the demise of the Livonian Order during the Livonian War, Riga for twenty years had the status of a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire before it came under the influence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Treaty of Drohiczyn, which ended the war for Riga in 1581. In 1621, during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), Riga and the outlying fortress of Daugavgriva came under the rule of Gustavus AdolphusKing of Sweden, who intervened in the Thirty Years’ War not only for political and economic gain but also in favour of German Lutheran Protestantism. During the Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658), Riga withstood a siege by Russian forces.

Riga remained the largest city in Sweden until 1710,[citation needed] a period during which the city retained a great deal of autonomous self-government. In that year, in the course of the Great Northern War, Russia under Tsar Peter the Great besieged plague-stricken Riga. Along with the other Livonian towns and gentry, Riga capitulated to Russia, but largely retained their privileges. Riga was made the capital of the Governorate of Riga (later: Livonia)Sweden’s northern dominance had ended, and Russia’s emergence as the strongest Northern power was formalised through the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Riga became an industrialised port city of the Russian empire, in which it remained until World War I. By 1900, Riga was the third largest city in Russia after Moscow and Saint Petersburg in terms of the number of industrial workers and number of theatres.

German troops entering Riga during World War I.

During these many centuries of war and changes of power in the Baltic, and despite demographic changes, the Baltic Germans in Riga had maintained a dominant position. By 1867, Riga’s population was 42.9% German.[39] Riga employed German as its official language of administration until the installation of Russian in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces, as part of the policy of Russification of the non-Russian speaking territories of the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, Finland and the Baltics, undertaken by Tsar Alexander III. More and more Latvians started moving to the city during the mid-19th century. The rise of a Latvian bourgeoisie made Riga a centre of the Latvian National Awakening with the founding of the Riga Latvian Association in 1868 and the organisation of the first national song festival in 1873. The nationalist movement of the Neo-Latvians was followed by the socialist New Current during the city’s rapid industrialisation, culminating in the 1905 Revolution led by the Latvian Social Democratic Workers’ Party.

World War I impact to Riga

The 20th century brought World War I and the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1917 to Riga. In consequence of the battle of Jugla, the German army marched into Riga on 3 September 1917.[40] On 3 March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving the Baltic countries to Germany. Because of the Armistice with Germany of 11 November 1918, Germany had to renounce that treaty, as did Russia, leaving Latvia and the other Baltic States in a position to claim independence. Latvia, with Riga as its capital city, thus declared its independence on 18 November 1918. Between World War I and World War II (1918–1940), Riga and Latvia shifted their focus from Russia to the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom and Germany replaced Russia as Latvia’s major trade partners. The majority of the Baltic Germans were resettled in late 1939, prior to the occupation of Estonia and Latvia by the Soviet Union in June 1940.

World War II

During World War II, Latvia was occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and then was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944. On June 17, 1940, the Soviet forces invaded Latvia occupying bridges, post/telephone, telegraph, and broadcasting offices. Three days later, Latvian president Karlis Ulmanis was forced to approve a pro-Soviet government which had taken office. On July 14–15, rigged elections were held in Latvia and the other Baltic states, The ballots held following instructions: “Only the list of the Latvian Working People’s Bloc must be deposited in the ballot box. The ballot must be deposited without any changes.” The alleged voter activity index was 97.6%. Most notably, the complete election results were published in Moscow 12 hours before the election closed. Soviet electoral documents found later substantiated that the results were completely fabricated. Tribunals were set up to punish “traitors to the people” – those who had fallen short of the “political duty” of voting Latvia into the USSR and those who failed to have their passports stamped for so voting were allowed to be shot in the back of the head. The Soviet authorities, having regained control over Riga and Latvia imposed a regime of terror, opening the headquarters of the KGB, massive deportations started. Hundreds of men were arrested, including leaders of the former Latvian government. The most notorious deportation, the June deportation took place on June 13 and June 14, 1941, estimated at 15,600 men, women, and children, and including 20% of Latvia’s last legal government. Similar deportations were repeated after the end of WWII. The building of the KGB located in Brīvības iela 61, known as ‘the corner house’, is now a museum. Stalin’s deportations also included thousands of Latvian Jews. (The mass deportation totalled 131,500 across the Baltics.) Similar atrocities were made after the Nazi occupation of Latvia when the city’s Jewish community was forced into the Riga Ghetto and a Nazi concentration camp was constructed in Kaiserwald. On 25 October 1941, the Nazis relocated all Jews from Riga and the vicinity to the ghetto. Most of Latvia’s Jews (about 24,000) were killed on 30 November and 8 December 1941 in the Rumbula massacre.[41] By the end of the war, the remaining Baltic Germans were expelled to Germany.

The Soviet Red Army re-entered Riga on 13 October 1944. In the following years the massive influx of labourers, administrators, military personnel, and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started. Microdistricts of the large multi-storied housing blocks were built to house immigrant workers.

By the end of the war, Rīga’s historical centre was heavily damaged because of constant bombing. After the war, huge efforts were made to reconstruct and renovate most of the famous buildings that were part of the skyline of the city before the war. Such buildings were, amongst others: St. Peter’s Church which lost its wooden tower after a fire caused by the Wehrmacht (renovated in 1954). Other example is The House of the Blackheads, completely destroyed, its ruins were subsequently demolished. A facsimile was subsequently constructed in 1995.

In 1989, the percentage of Latvians in Riga had fallen to 36.5%.[42]

Riga 21st century

In 2004, the arrival of low-cost airlines resulted in cheaper flights from other European cities such as London and Berlin and consequently a substantial increase in numbers of tourists.[43]

In November 2013, the roof of a supermarket collapsed, possibly as a result of the weight of materials used in the construction of a garden on the roof. At least 54 people were killed. The Latvian President Andris Berzins described the disaster as “a large scale murder of many defenceless people”.[44]

Riga was the European Capital of Culture in 2014.[45] During the Latvia’s Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2015 the 4th Eastern Partnership Summit took place in Riga.[46]

Geography of Riga

The river Daugava flows through Riga

Administrative divisions of Riga

Riga’s administrative divisions consist of six administrative entities: CentralKurzeme and Northern Districts and the LatgaleVidzeme and Zemgale Suburbs. Three entities were established on 1 September 1941, and the other three were established in October 1969.[47] There are no official lower level administrative units, but the Riga City Council Development Agency is working on a plan, which officially makes Riga consist of 58 neighbourhoods.[48] The current names were confirmed on 28 December 1990.[49]

Panorama over Riga from St. Peter’s Church

Climate of Riga

The climate of Riga is humid continental (Köppen Dfb). The coldest months are January and February, when the average temperature is −5 °C (23 °F) but temperatures as low as −20 to −25 °C (−4 to −13 °F) can be observed almost every year on the coldest days. The proximity of the sea causes frequent autumn rains and fogs. Continuous snow cover may last eighty days. The summers in Riga are cool and humid with the average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F), while the temperature on the hottest days can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Riga
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
10.2
(50.4)
13.5
(56.3)
20.5
(68.9)
27.9
(82.2)
30.1
(86.2)
32.5
(90.5)
34.1
(93.4)
33.6
(92.5)
29.3
(84.7)
23.4
(74.1)
17.2
(63)
11.5
(52.7)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F)
−2.3
(27.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
2.7
(36.9)
9.8
(49.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.1
(68.2)
21.7
(71.1)
21.0
(69.8)
16.3
(61.3)
10.4
(50.7)
3.9
(39)
0.3
(32.5)
9.87
(49.76)
Daily mean °C (°F)
−5.1
(22.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.4
(41.7)
11.1
(52)
15.1
(59.2)
17.0
(62.6)
16.4
(61.5)
12.2
(54)
7.2
(45)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
6.1
(42.98)
Average low °C (°F)
−7.8
(18)
−7.6
(18.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
1.0
(33.8)
5.9
(42.6)
10.0
(50)
12.3
(54.1)
11.8
(53.2)
8.0
(46.4)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.33
(36.19)
Record low °C (°F)
−33.7
(−28.7)
−34.9
(−30.8)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−11.4
(11.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.0
(39.2)
0.0
(32)
−4.1
(24.6)
−8.7
(16.3)
−18.9
(−2)
−31.9
(−25.4)
−34.9
(−30.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
33.7
(1.327)
27.0
(1.063)
27.9
(1.098)
41.1
(1.618)
42.5
(1.673)
59.9
(2.358)
74.3
(2.925)
73.1
(2.878)
78.9
(3.106)
60.2
(2.37)
57.3
(2.256)
46.0
(1.811)
620.9
(24.445)
Average precipitation days
21.5 18.6 15.7 11.0 11.8 12.1 12.8 13.7 13.0 16.0 18.9 20.6 185.7
Average relative humidity (%)
87.9 85.2 79.4 69.7 67.7 72.0 74.2 76.7 81.1 85.1 90.2 89.4 79.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours
31.0 62.2 127.1 183.0 263.5 288.0 263.5 229.4 153.0 93.0 39.0 21.7 1,754.4
Source #1: Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency (avg high and low)[50]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and extremes)[51]

Government of Riga

Nils Ušakovs, the first ethnic Russian mayor of Riga in independent Latvia

The head of the city government in Riga is the mayor. Incumbent mayor Nils Ušakovs, who is a member of the Harmony party, took office on 1 July 2009.

The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city. The Council consists of 60 members who are elected every four years. The Presidium of the Riga City Council consists of the Chairman of the Riga City Council and the representatives delegated by the political parties or party blocks elected to the City Council.

Demographics of Riga

With 639,630 inhabitants in 2016 as according to the Central statistical administration of Latvia,[3] Riga is the largest city in the Baltic States, though its population has decreased from just over 900,000 in 1991.[3] Notable causes include emigration and low birth rates. Some have estimated that the population may fall by as much as 50% by 2050.[52][not in citation given][who?] According to the 2017 data, ethnic Latvians made up 44.03% of the population of Riga, while ethnic Russians formed 37.88%, Belarusians 3.72%, Ukrainians 3.66%, Poles 1.83% and other ethnicities 9.10%. By comparison, 60.1% of Latvia’s total population was ethnically Latvian, 26.2% Russian, 3.3% Belarusian, 2.4% Ukrainian, 2.1% Polish, 1.2% are Lithuanian and the rest of other origins.[53]

Upon the restoration of Latvia’s independence in 1991, Soviet era immigrants (and any of their offspring born before 1991) were not automatically granted Latvian citizenship because they had migrated to the territory of Latvia during the years when Latvia was part of the Soviet Union. In 2013 citizens of Latvia made up 73.1%, non-citizens 21.9% and citizens of other countries 4.9% of the population of Riga.[54] The proportion of ethnic Latvians in Riga increased from 36.5% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2010. In contrast, the percentage of Russians fell from 47.3% to 40.7% in the same time period. Latvians overtook Russians as the largest ethnic group in 2006.[4] Further projections show that the ethnic Russian population will continue a steady decline, despite higher birth rates, due to emigration.[citation needed]

Historic population figures of Riga

population in thousands.

Econom of Riga

Riga is one of the key economic and financial centres of the Baltic States. Roughly half of all the jobs in Latvia are in Riga and the city generates more than 50% of Latvia’s GDP as well as around half of Latvia’s exports. The biggest exporters are in wood products, IT, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, transport and metallurgy.[55] Riga Port is one of the largest in the Baltics. It handled a record 34 million tons of cargo in 2011[56] and has potential for future growth with new port developments on Krievu Sala.[57]Tourism is also a large industry in Riga and after a slowdown during the recent global economic recessions, grew 22% in 2011 alone.[58]

Culture of Riga

Theatres of Riga

  • The Latvian National Opera was founded in 1918. The repertoire of the theatre embraces all opera masterpieces. The Latvian National Opera is famous not only for its operas, but for its ballet troupe as well.[59]
  • The Latvian National Theatre was founded in 1919. The Latvian National Theatre preserves the traditions of Latvian drama school. It is one of the biggest theatres in Latvia.[60]
  • The Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theatre is the oldest professional drama theatre in Latvia, established in 1883. The repertoire of the theatre includes classical plays and experimental performances of Russian and other foreign playwrights.
  • The Daile Theatre was opened for the first time in 1920. It is one of the most successful theatres in Latvia. This theatre is distinguished by its frequent productions of modern foreign plays.[61]
  • Latvian State Puppet Theatre was founded in 1944. This theatre presents shows for children and adults.[62]
  • The New Riga Theatre was opened in 1992. It has an intelligent and attractive repertoire of high quality that focused on a modern, educated and socially active audience.

World Choir Games in Riga

Riga hosted the biannual 2014 World Choir Games from 9–19 July 2014 which coincided with the city being named European Capital of Culture for 2014.[63][64] The event, organised by the choral foundation, Interkultur, takes place at various host cities every two years and was originally known as the “Choir Olympics”.[65] The event regularly sees over 15’000 choristers in over 300 choirs from over 60 nations compete for gold, silver and bronze medals in over 20 categories. The competition is further divided into a Champions Competition and an Open Competition to allow choirs from all backgrounds to enter.[63] Choral workshops and festivals are also witnessed in the host cities and are usually open to the public.[66]

Architecture of Riga

Rīga, Vecrīgas panorāma, (rindā no kreisās) Doma, Sv. Pētera un Anglikāņu baznīca. Foto: Atis Luguzs, 2018.g. 3.feb.
Panorama of Riga – Towers of three churches, (from left) Rīgas Doms, Pēterbaznīca un Anglikāņu baznīca. Photo by  Atis Luguzs from photo session on Vanšu bridge over river Daugava.

The radio and TV tower of Riga is the tallest structure in Latvia and the Baltic States, and one of the tallest in the European Union, reaching 368.5 m (1,209 ft).

Riga centre also has many great examples of Art Nouveau architecture, as well as a medieval old town.

Art Nouveau of Riga

Art Nouveau building on Alberta ieladesigned by Mikhail Eisenstein

It is generally recognized that Riga has largest collection of Art Nouveau buildings in the world. This is due to the fact that at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, when Art Nouveau was at the height of its popularity, Riga experienced an unprecedented financial and demographic boom.[67] In the period from 1857 to 1914 its population grew from 282,000 (256,200 in Riga itself and another 26,200 inhabitants beyond the city limits in patrimonial district and military town of Ust-Dvinsk) to 558,000 making it the 4th largest city in the Russian Empire (after Saint-PetersburgMoscow and Warsaw) and its largest port.[67] The middle class of Riga used their acquired wealth to build imposing apartment blocks outside the former city walls. Local architects, mostly graduates of Riga Technical University, adopted current European movements and in particular Art Nouveau.[68] Between 1910 and 1913, between 300 and 500 new buildings were built each year in Riga, most of them in Art Nouveau style and most of them outside the old town.[68]

Sports in Riga

Riga has a rich basketball history. In the 1950s ASK Riga became the best club in the Soviet Union and also in Europe, winning the first three editions of the European Cup for Men’s Champions Clubs from 1958 to 1960.[69]

In 1960, ASK was not the only team from Riga to take the European crown. TTT Riga clinched their first title in the European Cup for Women’s Champion Clubs, turning Riga into the capital city of European basketball because for the first and, so far, only time in the history of European basketball, clubs from the same city were concurrent European Men’s and Women’s club champions.[70]

In 2015, Riga was one of the hosts for EuroBasket 2015.

Sports clubs of Riga

Sports facilities of Riga

Sports events in Riga

Transport in Riga

One of the several Trolleybus types in Riga

Riga, with its central geographic position and concentration of population, has always been the infrastructural hub of Latvia. Several national roads begin in Riga, and European route E22 crosses Riga from the east and west, while the Via Baltica crosses Riga from the south and north.

As a city situated by a river, Riga also has several bridges. The oldest standing bridge is the Railway Bridge, which is also the only railroad-carrying bridge in Riga. The Stone Bridge (Akmens tilts) connects Old Riga and Pārdaugava; the Island Bridge (Salu tilts) connects Maskavas Forštate and Pārdaugava via Zaķusala; and the Shroud Bridge (Vanšu tilts) connects Old Riga and Pārdaugava via Ķīpsala. In 2008, the first stage of the new Southern Bridge (Dienvidu tilts) route across the Daugava was completed, and was opened to traffic on 17 November.[72]

The Southern Bridge was the biggest construction project in the Baltic states in 20 years, and its purpose was to reduce traffic congestion in the city centre.[73][74] Another major construction project is the planned Riga Northern Transport Corridor;[75] its first segment detailed project was completed in 2015.[76]

The Freeport of Riga facilitates cargo and passenger traffic by sea. Sea ferries currently connect Riga Passenger Terminal to Stockholm operated by Tallink.[77]

Škoda 15 T tram in Riga

Riga has one active airport that serves commercial airlines—the Riga International Airport (RIX), built in 1973. Renovation and modernization of the airport was completed in 2001, coinciding with the 800th anniversary of the city. In 2006, a new terminal extension was opened. Extension of the runway was completed in October 2008, and the airport is now able to accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A340, Boeing 747, 757, 767 and 777. Another terminal extension is under construction as of 2014.[78] The annual number of passengers has grown from 310,000 in 1993 to 4.7 million in 2014, making Riga International Airport the largest in the Baltic States.

The former international airport of Riga, Spilve Airport, located 5 km (3.11 mi) from Riga city centre, is currently used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation. Riga was also home to a military air base during the Cold War — Rumbula Air Base.

Public transportation in the city is provided by Rīgas Satiksme which operates a large number of tramsbuses and trolleybuses on an extensive network of routes across the city. In addition, up until 2012 many private owners operated minibus services, after which the City Council established the unified transport company Rīgas mikroautobusu satiksme, establishing a monopoly over the service.

Riga is connected to the rest of Latvia by trains operated by the national carrier Passenger Train, whose headquarters are in Riga. There are also international rail services to Russia and Belarus, and plans to revive passenger rail traffic with Estonia. A TEN-T project called Rail Baltica envisages building a high-speed railway line via Riga connecting Tallinn to Warsaw using standard gauge,[79] expected to be put into operation in 2024.[80]

Riga International Coach Terminal provides domestic and international connections by coach.

Universities in Riga

Notable residents of Riga

Sister cities of Riga

Riga maintains sister city relationships with the following cities:[81]

See also

References for Riga

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Bibliography

External links

Jelgavas ziema saulainā rītā

Driksa Jelgavā, Saulains ziemas rīts ar apsnigušiem kokiem un krūmiem

Saulains un piesnidzis ziemas rīts Jelgavā, 2016. gada 29. novembrī. Kad pamostoties ārā pa logu ieraugi – jā tāda ainava ir reizi 10 gados.  Saule, bezvējš, piesnigušu koku atspulgi Lielupes un Driksas ūdenī. Jāņem tikai fotoaparāts jāskrien laukā bildēt. Citādi skaistums paspēs izkust, vējš atspulgus aizpūst. Saule pacelties pārāk augstu vai paslēpties aiz mākoņiem. Jelgavas ainavas: Bāka pie tējas namiņa. Mītavas tilts un Sv. Trīsvienības baznīcas tornis. Academia Petrina no Meža fakultātes parka. Pīlādži sniegā un Pasta salas krasts. Sniegs, saule un ziema 🙂

Photography

Vecrīgas ainava. Foto: Atis Luguzs
Photography
Large format camera lens.jpg

Lens and mounting of a large-format camera
Other names Science or Art of creating durable images
Types Recording light or other electromagnetic radiation
Inventor Thomas Wedgwood (1800)
Related Stereoscopic, Full-spectrum, Light field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner

Photography is the scienceart, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.[1]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically “developed” into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

Etymology

The word “photography” was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), “light”[2] and γραφή (graphé) “representation by means of lines” or “drawing”,[3] together meaning “drawing with light”.[4]

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.[5] This claim is widely reported but apparently has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt.[citation needed] The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – especially Talbot’s – regarding Daguerre’s claim of invention.[6] The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed “J.M.”, believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler.[7] Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled facts.[citation needed]

The inventors Niépce, Talbot and Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word “photography”, but referred to their processes as “Heliography” (Niépce), “Photogenic Drawing” / “Talbotype” / “Calotype” (Talbot) and “Daguerreotype” (Daguerre).[7]

History

Precursor technologies

A camera obscura used for drawing

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, ancient Han Chinese philosopher Mo Di from the Mohist School of Logic was the first to discover and develop the scientific principles of opticscamera obscura, and pinhole camera. Later Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid also independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.[10] Both the Han Chinese polymath Shen Kuo (1031–95) and Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham(Alhazen) (965–1040) independently invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus(1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Shen Kuo explains the science of camera obscura and optical physics in his scientific work Dream Pool Essays while the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham‘s Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.[14][15][16]

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18]The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient ChinaLeonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura.

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means “dark chamber” in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

Invention of photography

Earliest known surviving heliographic engraving, 1825, printed from a metal plate made by Nicéphore Niépce.[19] The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it by photographic means. This was a step towards the first permanent photograph taken with a camera.

Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, and even made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that “the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver.” The shadow images eventually darkened all over.[20]

The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[19] Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens).[21]

View from the Window at Le Gras, 1826 or 1827, the earliest surviving camera photograph

Because Niépce’s camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy.

Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre’s efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotypeprocess. The essential elements—a silver-plated surface sensitized by iodine vapor, developed by mercuryvapor, and “fixed” with hot saturated salt water—were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to be visible. The existence of Daguerre’s process was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France soon agreed to pay Daguerre a pension in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred when complete working instructions were unveiled on 19 August 1839. In that same year, American photographer Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic self-portrait.

A latticed window in Lacock Abbey, England, photographed by William Fox Talbot in 1835. Shown here in positive form, this may be the oldest extant photographic negative made in a camera.

In BrazilHercules Florence had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming it Photographie.

Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Fox Talbot, had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silver images on paper as early as 1834 but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre’s invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot’s paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, which used the chemical development of a latent image to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot’s process, unlike Daguerre’s, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemical photography up to the present day, as Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[22] Talbot’s famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[23][24]

British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the “blueprint”. He was the first to use the terms “photography”, “negative” and “positive”. He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to “fix” silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

In the March 1851 issue of The ChemistFrederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908.

Glass plates were the medium for most original camera photography from the late 1850s until the general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s. Although the convenience of the film greatly popularized amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910s they were not available in the large formats preferred by most professional photographers, so the new medium did not immediately or completely replace the old. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications, such as astrophotography, continued into the 1990s, and in the niche field of laser holography, it has persisted into the 2010s.

Film photography

Undeveloped Arista black-and-white film, ISO 125/22°

Hurter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their work enabled the first quantitative measure of film speed to be devised.

The first flexible photographic roll film was marketed by George Eastman in 1885, but this original “film” was actually a coating on a paper base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose (“celluloid“), now usually called “nitrate film“.

Although cellulose acetate or “safety film” had been introduced by Kodak in 1908,[25] at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The changeover was not completed for X-ray films until 1933, and although safety film was always used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm motion pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951.

Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats.[26] Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, film continues to be used by enthusiasts and professional photographers. The distinctive “look” of film based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: (1) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (S-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with film vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors) [27] (2) resolution and (3) continuity of tone.[28]

Black-and-white

A photographic darkroom with safelight

Originally, all photography was monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its “classic” photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photography.[29] It is important to note that monochromatic pictures are not necessarily composed of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of gray but can involve shades of one particular hue depending on the process. The cyanotype process, for example, produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen printprocess first used more than 170 years ago, produces brownish tones.

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silver-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salvage certain photographs taken in color which are unsatisfactory in their original form; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are found to be more effective. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all image editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from one shot in color.

Color

The first color photograph made by the three-color method suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton. The subject is a colored, tartan patterned ribbon.

Color photography was explored beginning in the 1840s. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not “fix” the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855.[30][31] The foundation of virtually all practical color processes, Maxwell’s idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters.[30][31] This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image. Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

Color photography was possible long before Kodachrome, as this 1903 portrait by Sarah Angelina Aclanddemonstrates, but in its earliest years, the need for special equipment, long exposures, and complicated printing processes made it extremely rare.

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color “fringes” or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

Implementation of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

Kodachrome, the first modern “integral tripack” (or “monopack”) color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multi-layer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

Agfa’s similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently, available color films still employ a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa’s product.

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. After a transition period centered around 1995–2005, color film was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Film continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive “look”.

Digital photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film.[32] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken around the world are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones.

Synthesis photography

Synthesis photography is part of computer-generated imagery (CGI) where the shooting process is modeled on real photography. The CGI, creating digital copies of real universe, requires a visual representation process of these universes. Synthesis photography is the application of analog and digital photography in digital space. With the characteristics of the real photography but not being constrained by the physical limits of real world, synthesis photography allows to get away from real photography.[33]

Photographic techniques

Angles such as vertical, horizontal, or as pictured here diagonal are considered important photographic techniques

A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; stereoscopy; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques.

Cameras

The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic platephotographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory.[34]

Photographers control the camera and lens to “expose” the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a “latent image” (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor(CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper.

The camera (or ‘camera obscura‘) is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

As soon as photographic materials became “fast” (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small “detective” cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a “frame”. This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the “frame rate” (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person’s eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[35]

Stereoscopic

Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion.[36] While known colloquially as “3-D” photography, the more accurate term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods (including cell phone cameras).

Dualphotography

An example of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (e.g. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or two networked cameras for portal-plane dualphotography). The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image.[37]

Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared

This image of the rings of Saturn is an example of the application of ultraviolet photography in astronomy

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.

Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[38]

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters).

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photographygeologyforensics and law enforcement.

Light field photography

Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of “light field photography” (also known as synthetic aperture photography). This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected after the photograph has been captured.[39] As explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the “light field” is understood as 5-dimensional, with each point in 3-D space having attributes of two more angles that define the direction of each ray passing through that point.

These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel of the final image is actually a selection from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm.

Devices other than cameras can be used to record images. Trichome of Arabidopsis thaliana seen via scanning electron microscope. Note that image has been edited by adding colors to clarify structure or to add an aesthetic effect. Heiti Paves from Tallinn University of Technology.

Other imaging techniques

Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotographyPhotograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.

Modes of production

Amateur

An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby/passion and not necessarily for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera.[40] Nowadays it has spread widely through social media and is carried out throughout different platforms and equipment, switching to the use of cell phone as a key tool for making photography more accessible to everyone.

A photograph taken by an amateur photographer in Lebanon.

Indianapolis as a panorama and a modified fisheye image by an amateur photographer with image editing software
A large panorama photo of downtown Indianapolis
Downtown Indianapolis in a large panorama image
The same image of Indianapolis distorted into a circle
The same image but modified with a fisheye lens-style technique into a circle

Commercial

Example of a studio-made food photograph.

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

  • Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agencydesign firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
  • Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography, like the work featured in Harper’s Bazaar, emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men’s magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude.
  • Concert Photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well as the atmosphere (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the artist or band in addition to the venue.
  • Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
  • Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertising purposes.
  • Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills.
  • Editorial photography illustrates a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine and encompass fashion and glamour photography features.
    • Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.
  • Landscape photography depicts locations.
  • Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of animals.
  • Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people.
  • Pet photography involves several aspects that are similar to traditional studio portraits. It can also be done in natural lighting, outside of a studio, such as in a client’s home.

Landscape 360-degree panoramic picture of the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama DesertChile. In the center is Cerro Chajnantor itself. To the right, on the plateau, is the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope with Cerro Chascon behind it.[41]

The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism “A picture is worth a thousand words“, which has an interesting basis in the history of photography. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography.

Many people take photographs for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can employ a photographer directly, organize a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs. Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster.

Art

Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage shows unique aesthetic of black-and-white photos.

During the 20th century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred StieglitzEdward SteichenJohn SzarkowskiF. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, ‘romantic’ look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate ‘straight photography‘, the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.

The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images “written with light”; Nicéphore NiépceLouis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.

Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only “significant form” can distinguish art from what is not art.

There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible — significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.[42]

On 7 February 2007, Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph 99 Cent II Diptychon for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder, making it the most expensive at the time.[43]

Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.

Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a particular form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photographysocial documentary photographystreet photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver newsin a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining.

Science and forensics

The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Crime scene photos are taken from three vantage point. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-up.[44]

In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produced 12- or 24- hour photographic traces of the minute-by-minute variations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidityatmospheric electricity, and the three components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century.[45][46] Charles Brooke a little later developed similar instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.[47]

Science uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation.[48] Photography has become ubiquitous in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time.[49]

The first photographed atom was discovered in 2012 by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an “Ion” of the element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic film.[50]

Social and cultural implications

Photography may be used both to capture reality and to produce a work of art. While photo manipulation was often frowned upon at first, it was eventually used to great extent to produce artistic effects. Nude composition 19 from 1988 by Jaan Künnap.

The Musée de l’Élysée, founded in 1985 in Lausanne, was the first photography museum in Europe.

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her writing “On Photography” (1977), Susan Sontag discusses concerns about the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[51] Sontag argues, “To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one’s self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power.”[52] Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective form of representation.

Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its effect on society. In Alfred Hitchcock‘s Rear Window (1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. ‘Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing’.[52]

The camera doesn’t rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment.[52]

Digital imaging has raised ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post-processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make “photomontages“, passing them as “real” photographs. Today’s technology has made image editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allow digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography.

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society.[53]Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that “to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed.” Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality.[52]

One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a “tourist gaze”[54] in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a “reverse gaze”[55] through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.

Additionally, photography has been the topic of many songs in popular culture.

Law

Photography is both restricted as well as protected by the law in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the United States, photography is protected as a First Amendment right and anyone is free to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long as it is in plain view.[56] In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[57]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Spencer, D A (1973). The Focal Dictionary of Photographic Technologies. Focal Press. p. 454. ISBN 978-0133227192.
  2. Jump up^ φάος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. Jump up^ γραφή, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4. Jump up^ Harper, Douglas. “photograph”Online Etymology Dictionary.
  5. Jump up^ Boris Kossoy (2004). Hercule Florence: El descubrimiento de la fotografía en Brasil. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. ISBN 968-03-0020-X.
  6. Jump up^ Template:Cite periodical
  7. Jump up to:a b Eder, J.M (1945) [1932]. History of Photography, 4th. edition[Geschichte der Photographie]. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. pp. 258–259. ISBN 0-486-23586-6.
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  9. Jump up to:a b Krebs, Robert E. (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN 0-313-32433-6.
  10. Jump up^ Alistair Cameron CrombieScience, optics, and music in medieval and early modern thought, p. 205
  11. Jump up^ Wade, Nicholas J.; Finger, Stanley (2001). “The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz’s perspective”. Perception30 (10): 1157–77. doi:10.1068/p3210PMID 11721819.
  12. Jump up^ Davidson, Michael W; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (1 August 2003). “Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Timeline – Albertus Magnus”. The Florida State University. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  13. Jump up^ Potonniée, Georges (1973). The history of the discovery of photography. Arno Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-405-04929-3
  14. Jump up^ Allen, Nicholas P. L. (11 November 1993). “Is the Shroud of Turin the first recorded photograph?” (PDF). The South African Journal of Art History: 23–32.
  15. Jump up^ Allen, Nicholas P. L. (1994). “A reappraisal of late thirteenth-century responses to the Shroud of Lirey-Chambéry-Turin: encolpia of the Eucharist, vera eikon or supreme relic?”. The Southern African Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies4 (1): 62–94.
  16. Jump up^ Allen, Nicholas P. L. “Verification of the Nature and Causes of the Photo-negative Images on the Shroud of Lirey-Chambéry-Turin”. unisa.ac.za
  17. Jump up to:a b Gernsheim, Helmut (1986). A concise history of photography. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-486-25128-4
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  19. Jump up to:a b “The First Photograph – Heliography”. Retrieved 29 September2009from Helmut Gernsheim’s article, “The 150th Anniversary of Photography,” in History of Photography, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1977: …In 1822, Niépce coated a glass plate… The sunlight passing through… This first permanent example… was destroyed… some years later.
  20. Jump up^ Litchfield, R. 1903. “Tom Wedgwood, the First Photographer: An Account of His Life.” London, Duckworth and Co. See Chapter XIII. Includes the complete text of Humphry Davy’s 1802 paper, which is the only known contemporary record of Wedgwood’s experiments. (Retrieved 7 May 2013 via archive.org).
  21. Jump up^ Hirsch, Robert (1999). Seizing the light: a history of photography. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-697-14361-7.
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  23. Jump up^ Feldman, Anthony and Ford, Peter (1989) Scientists & inventors. Bloomsbury Books, p. 128, ISBN 1870630238.
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  26. Jump up^ Peres, Michael R. (2008). The Concise Focal Encyclopedia of Photography: from the first photo on paper to the digital revolution. Burlington, Mass.: Focal Press/Elsevier. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-240-80998-4.
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  48. Jump up^ Upadhyay, J.; Chakera, J. A.; Navathe, C. P.; Naik, P. A.; Joshi, A. S.; Gupta, P. D. (2006). “Development of single frame X-ray framing camera for pulsed plasma experiments”. Sadhana31 (5): 613. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.570.172Freely accessibledoi:10.1007/BF02715917.
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  56. Jump up^ “You Have Every Right to Photograph That Cop”American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
  57. Jump up^ “Jail for photographing police?”British Journal of Photography. 28 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010.

Further reading

Introduction

  • Photography. A Critical Introduction [Paperback], ed. by Liz Wells, 3rd edition, London [etc.]: Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30704-X

History

  • A New History of Photography, ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998
  • Franz-Xaver Schlegel, Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914–1935, 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, ISBN 3-00-004407-8.

Reference works

Other books

External links